Abstract

We performed time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) network films coated on quartz substrates from dispersion solutions by spraying method. The rGO network films demonstrate high conductivity of about 900 S/cm in the THz frequency range after a high temperature reduction process. The frequency-dependent conductivities and the refractive indexes of the rGO films have been obtained and analyzed with respect to the Drude free-electron model, which is characterized by large scattering rate. Finally, we demonstrate that the THz conductivities can be manipulated by controlling the reduction process, which correlates well with the DC conductivity above the percolation limit.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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  16. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 532–535 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater.9(10), 840–845 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express19(1), 141–146 (2011).
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  28. M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 091109 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(23), 231905 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015102 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys.99(6), 066103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B76(12), 125408 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  36. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. F. T. Vasko, V. V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B86(23), 235424 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  40. H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(17), 172102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (6)

L. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, M. D. Stoller, Y. Zhu, H. Ji, S. Murali, Y. Wu, S. Perales, B. Clevenger, and R. S. Ruoff, “Highly conductive and porous activated reduced graphene oxide films for high-power supercapacitors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1806–1812 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.12(2), 551–555 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(9), 091109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett.12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Vasko, V. V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B86(23), 235424 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. He, S. Wu, S. Gao, X. Cao, Z. Yin, H. Li, P. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Transparent, flexible, all-reduced graphene oxide thin film transistors,” ACS Nano5(6), 5038–5044 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express19(1), 141–146 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater.9(10), 840–845 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. C. Compton and S. T. Nguyen, “Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: Versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials,” Small6(6), 711–723 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (10)

J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(4), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 270–274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(23), 231905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B76(12), 125408 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science315(5817), 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys.99(6), 066103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acik, M.

M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater.9(10), 840–845 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(23), 231905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrei, E. Y.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barker, A.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrau, S.

S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, R. A.

Basov, D. N.

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G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 270–274 (2008).
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G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(5), 270–274 (2008).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
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A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165113 (2011).
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S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B76(12), 125408 (2007).
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S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
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J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165113 (2011).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Q. He, S. Wu, S. Gao, X. Cao, Z. Yin, H. Li, P. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Transparent, flexible, all-reduced graphene oxide thin film transistors,” ACS Nano5(6), 5038–5044 (2011).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B76(12), 125408 (2007).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express5(1), 015102 (2012).
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J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165113 (2011).
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J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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Jang, C.

J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science315(5817), 1379 (2007).
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L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett.12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(17), 172102 (2009).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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ACS Nano (2)

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Nat. Mater. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the fabrication of rGO films based on a spraying method. (b) SEM image of rGO flakes. (c) AFM image of rGO30 film. Also shown is the line profile the film thickness along the dashed line in the AFM image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of sheet resistance for the series of the rGO samples with different thicknesses, from rGO5 (5 nm) to rGO30 (30 nm) films (red circles). Open and filled squares show optical transmission at 550 nm as a function of the thickness for the GO and rGO films, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz time-domain transmission amplitudes for rGO30 (red line) and GO30 (blue line) films, respectively, normalized to the reference transmission (dashed line) (b) THz transmission amplitude spectra, from rGO5 to rGO30 films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Real (open squares) and imaginary (open circles) parts of the THz conductivity of rGO30 film. Red and blue solid lines are fits to the data by Drude free-electron model. (b) Real (blue line) and imaginary (red line) parts of the refractive indexes for the rGO30 film extracted from complex conductivity in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Real part of the ac conductivities for the series of the films with Nsp = 60, at reduction temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 °C. (b) THz conductivities at 1 THz as a function of reduction temperature (red). Shown together are dc conductivities extracted from the four-probe measurements (black). Inset shows conductivities ( σ σ r ) at visible to near-IR range for the rGO films with different TR values extracted from the transmission spectra and the thin film equation.

Equations (2)

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E rGO+sub (ω) E sub (ω) = 1+ n sub 1+ n sub + Z 0 σ ˜ (ω)d
σ ˜ = ε 0 ω p 2 τ 1iωτ

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