Abstract

In contrast to Yb/Al-doped fibers, the influence of very low Tm2O3 concentrations (≥ 0.1 mol-ppm) on photodarkening (PD) is clearly detectable in Yb/P-doped fibers that are known to show little degradation effects. For Tm2O3 additions of more than 50 mol-ppm, the measured PD loss is even similar to Yb/Al-doped fibers with comparable rare earth concentrations. Our work reveals the risk of color center generation by pumping at wavelengths of 915 nm or 976 nm even in Al-free Yb-doped fibers and emphasizes the importance of high purity of raw materials for the preparation of Yb laser fibers with expected very low PD.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and J. Kirchhof, Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena, Germany, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Advanced absorption and fluorescence measurements to characterize photodarkening and related properties of Yb fibers”.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express16(20), 15540–15545 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. E. Mattsson, “Photo darkening of rare earth doped silica,” Opt. Express19(21), 19797–19812 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

2012 (3)

R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+ doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Tregoat, A. Monteville, and T. Robin, “Photobleaching of photodarkening in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers with 633 nm irradiation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1286–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

J. Chang, Q.-P. Wang, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical amplification in Yb3+-codoped thulium doped silica fiber,” Opt. Mater.28(8-9), 1088–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Arai, T.

T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977 nm and 543 nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg Grating Inscription Combining DUV Sub-Picosecond Laser Pulses and Two-Beam Interferometry,” Opt. Express16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basu, C.

Baxter, G. W.

Becker, M.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg Grating Inscription Combining DUV Sub-Picosecond Laser Pulses and Two-Beam Interferometry,” Opt. Express16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bello Doua, R.

Bergmann, J.

Blanc, W.

Boullet, J.

Boyland, A. J.

Broer, M. M.

Brückner, S.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg Grating Inscription Combining DUV Sub-Picosecond Laser Pulses and Two-Beam Interferometry,” Opt. Express16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burov, E.

Cardinal, T.

Cavani, O.

Chang, J.

J. Chang, Q.-P. Wang, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical amplification in Yb3+-codoped thulium doped silica fiber,” Opt. Mater.28(8-9), 1088–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. F.

Deschamps, T.

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Digiovanni, D. J.

Dussardier, B.

Engholm, M.

Ermeneux, S.

Fiebrandt, J.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke, M.

Fujimaki, M.

T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gebavi, H.

Gibbs, W. E.

Gonnet, C.

R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+ doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Peretti, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, C. Gonnet, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, and O. Cavani, “How do traces of thulium explain photodarkening in Yb doped fibers?” Opt. Express18(19), 20455–20460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Guillen, F.

Guzman Chávez, A. D.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977 nm and 543 nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichii, K.

T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Il’ichev, N. N.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977 nm and 543 nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Jäger, M.

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, M. Jäger, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions due to photodarkening,” Opt. Mater. Express (to be published).

Jetschke, S.

Jurdyc, A.-M.

R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+ doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Peretti, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, C. Gonnet, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, and O. Cavani, “How do traces of thulium explain photodarkening in Yb doped fibers?” Opt. Express18(19), 20455–20460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977 nm and 543 nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

Krol, D. M.

Leich, M.

Lindner, E.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg Grating Inscription Combining DUV Sub-Picosecond Laser Pulses and Two-Beam Interferometry,” Opt. Express16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Matsuishi, S.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattsson, K. E.

Monnom, G.

Monteville, A.

Nilsson, J.

Nishii, J.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norin, L.

Ollier, N.

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Oto, M.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastouret, A.

Payne, D.

Peng, G.-D.

J. Chang, Q.-P. Wang, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical amplification in Yb3+-codoped thulium doped silica fiber,” Opt. Mater.28(8-9), 1088–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peretti, R.

R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+ doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Peretti, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, C. Gonnet, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, and O. Cavani, “How do traces of thulium explain photodarkening in Yb doped fibers?” Opt. Express18(19), 20455–20460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterka, P.

Podgorski, M.

Robin, T.

Röpke, U.

Rothhardt, M.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M. W.

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, A.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

Schwuchow, A.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, M. Leich, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of Tm- or Er-codoping on the photodarkening kinetics in Yb fibers,” Opt. Express19(15), 14473–14478 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express16(20), 15540–15545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, M. Jäger, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions due to photodarkening,” Opt. Mater. Express (to be published).

Se-Weon, C.

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, D. A.

Sones, C.

Taccheo, S.

Tanigawa, S.

T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tregoat, D.

Unger, S.

Vezin, H.

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Wang, Q.-P.

J. Chang, Q.-P. Wang, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical amplification in Yb3+-codoped thulium doped silica fiber,” Opt. Mater.28(8-9), 1088–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Peretti, C. Gonnet, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Revisiting literature observations on photodarkening in Yb3+ doped fiber considering the possible presence of Tm impurities,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Saitoh, S. Matsuishi, C. Se-Weon, J. Nishii, M. Oto, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Elucidation of codoping effects on the solubility enhancement of Er3+ in SiO2 glass: Striking difference between Al and P codoping,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(15), 7617–7620 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977 nm and 543 nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett.4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Engholm and L. Norin, “Preventing photodarkening in ytterbium-doped high power fiber lasers; correlation to the UV-transparency of the core glass,” Opt. Express16(2), 1260–1268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, “Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Express16(18), 13781–13799 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, “Efficient Yb laser fibers with low photodarkening by optimization of the core composition,” Opt. Express16(20), 15540–15545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Becker, J. Bergmann, S. Brückner, M. Franke, E. Lindner, M. W. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Fiber Bragg Grating Inscription Combining DUV Sub-Picosecond Laser Pulses and Two-Beam Interferometry,” Opt. Express16(23), 19169–19178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Peretti, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, C. Gonnet, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, and O. Cavani, “How do traces of thulium explain photodarkening in Yb doped fibers?” Opt. Express18(19), 20455–20460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, M. Leich, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, and J. Kirchhof, “Influence of Tm- or Er-codoping on the photodarkening kinetics in Yb fibers,” Opt. Express19(15), 14473–14478 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Mattsson, “Photo darkening of rare earth doped silica,” Opt. Express19(21), 19797–19812 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express (to be published).

I. Manek-Hönninger, J. Boullet, T. Cardinal, F. Guillen, S. Ermeneux, M. Podgorski, R. Bello Doua, and F. Salin, “Photodarkening and photobleaching of an ytterbium-doped silica double-clad LMA fiber,” Opt. Express15(4), 1606–1611 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Chang, Q.-P. Wang, and G.-D. Peng, “Optical amplification in Yb3+-codoped thulium doped silica fiber,” Opt. Mater.28(8-9), 1088–1094 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

S. Jetschke, A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, M. Leich, M. Jäger, and J. Kirchhof, “Deactivation of Yb3+ ions due to photodarkening,” Opt. Mater. Express (to be published).

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Tregoat, A. Monteville, and T. Robin, “Photobleaching of photodarkening in ytterbium doped aluminosilicate fibers with 633 nm irradiation,” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1286–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Arai, K. Ichii, S. Tanigawa, and M. Fujimaki, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in ytterbium-doped silica glasses,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140K, 79140K-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. Inoue, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, “Photodarkening and Photobleaching of Yb-doped Fibers by Laser Diodes,” Proc. CLEO/QELS, CMGG5 (2010).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 689016 (2008).

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnov, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “Photodarkening of alumosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers,” Proc. of Conf. of Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe Technical Digest (OSA, 2007), CJ3–1–THU (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schwuchow, S. Unger, S. Jetschke, and J. Kirchhof, Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena, Germany, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Advanced absorption and fluorescence measurements to characterize photodarkening and related properties of Yb fibers”.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for PD analysis with chopper/lock-in technique: core pumping is performed at 976 nm with a WDM coupler, cladding pumping at 915 nm with a TFB coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial concentration profiles in the Yb/Tm/P-doped preform sample with 310 mol-ppm Tm2O3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Tm3+ fluorescence spectra measured at the fibers with 7 and with 310 mol-ppm Tm2O3 (excited at 976 nm), (b) Tm3+ fluorescence intensity (473 nm) as a function of Tm content.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Series of Yb/Tm/P-doped fibers, excited at 976 nm: (a) measured NIR fluorescence decay curves, (b) Yb3+ fluorescence intensity (1075 nm) and NIR lifetime as a function of Tm content.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of PD loss in Yb/Tm/P-doped fibers: (a) with core pumping at 976 nm, (b) with cladding pumping at 915 nm (inset: comparison of PD kinetics during first minutes of pumping at 976 nm or 915 nm; fiber with 310 mol-ppm Tm2O3).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of Yb/Al and Yb/P fibers with Tm, core pumped at 976 nm: (a) PD loss at 633 nm vs. Tm content (results for Yb/Al fibers from [12]), (b) typical excess loss spectra after pump-induced PD or UV irradiation (“without Tm” means only trace impurities below 0.1 mol-ppm).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Yb fibers examined for influence of Tm on PD: content of Yb, P and Tm

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