Abstract

The nonlinear refraction (NLR) properties of graphene oxide (GO) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes by Z-scan technique. Results show that the dispersion of GO in DMF exhibits negative NLR properties in nanosecond time regime, which is mainly attributed to transient thermal effect in the dispersion. The dispersion also exhibits negative NLR in picosecond and femtosecond time regimes, which are arising from sp2- hybridized carbon domains and sp3- hybridized matrix in GO sheets. To illustrate the relations between NLR and nonlinear absorption (NLA), NLA properties of the dispersion were also studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Yan, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Polarization characteristics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering in several solvents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(10), 2721–2728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Feng, H. B. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater.22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Xing, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. graphene-based materials,” Science320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

1992

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1958

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Agnoli, S.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alem, N.

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagci, F.

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X. D.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakandritsos, A.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z. N.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becerril, H. A.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bekaroglu, Ö.

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bian, F.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bourlinos, A. B.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brochard, P.

Cabanel, R.

Celik, O.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ceyhan, T.

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. A.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, I. S.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Q.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. Feng, H. B. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

X. Q. Yan, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Polarization characteristics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering in several solvents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(10), 2721–2728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhowalla, M.

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater.22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. N.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eda, G.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater.22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
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K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erni, R.

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
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M. Feng, H. B. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. B.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gannett, W.

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garfunkel, E.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioti, M.

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Goh, B. M.

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govindaraj, A.

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granozzi, G.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J. H.

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

Hagan, D. J.

Hernandez, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

Huang, H.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hummers, W. S.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. F.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
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D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. graphene-based materials,” Science320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
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C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kockaert, P.

Kopidakis, G.

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, D. I.

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Z.

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. graphene-based materials,” Science320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaros, N.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Y.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. B.

X. Q. Yan, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Polarization characteristics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering in several solvents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(10), 2721–2728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. F.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logothetidis, S.

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lotya, M.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. H.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manga, K. K.

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, G. L.

Mao, J.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massar, S.

Mathioudakis, C.

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattevi, C.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazza, V. G.

Miller, S.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mkhoyan, K. A.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mostrogiovanni, D.

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nalla, V.

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neo, S. T.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Otyepka, M.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Patsalas, P.

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ping, L. K.

Polavarapu, L.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, C. N. R.

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safarova, K.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Song, F.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. L.

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoltenberg, R. M.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subrahmanyam, K. S.

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

X. Q. Yan, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Polarization characteristics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering in several solvents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(10), 2721–2728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Venkatesan, T.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Virally, S.

Wang, E. G.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. L.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

Wu, Y. P.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xing, G. C.

Xu, Q. H.

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y. F.

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yaglioglu, H. G.

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, H.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, S. C.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, W. B.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. Q.

X. Q. Yan, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Polarization characteristics of nonlinear refraction and nonlinear scattering in several solvents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(10), 2721–2728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Z.

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Young, J.

Yüksek, M.

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zang, W. P.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zboril, R.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zettl, A.

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, H. B.

M. Feng, H. B. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

Zhang, X. L.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. L.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. M.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H. G.

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of electrical, chemical, and structural properties of transparent and conducting chemically derived graphene thin films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(16), 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater.22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Erickson, R. Erni, Z. Lee, N. Alem, W. Gannett, and A. Zettl, “Determination of the local chemical structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(40), 4467–4472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater.22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater.21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

C. N. R. Rao, A. K. Sood, K. S. Subrahmanyam, and A. Govindaraj, “Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.48(42), 7752–7777 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

J. Wang and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. B91(3–4), 521–524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Feng, H. B. Zhan, and Y. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene families,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. P. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Bakandritsos, N. Liaros, S. Couris, K. Safarova, M. Otyepka, and R. Zboril, “Water dispersible functionalized graphene fluoride with significant nonlinear optical response,” Chem. Phys. Lett.543, 101–105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339–1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, S. Shi, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, Y. F. Xu, and Y. S. Chen, “Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide–Fe3O4 hybrid material,” J. Opt.13(7), 075202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

Z. B. Liu, X. Zhao, X. L. Zhang, X. Q. Yan, Y. P. Wu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical responses from sp2-and sp3-hybridized domains in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(16), 1972–1977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Jiang, L. Polavarapu, S. T. Neo, T. Venkatesan, and Q. H. Xu, “Graphene oxides as tunable broadband nonlinear optical materials for femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(6), 785–790 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

R. Wu, Y. L. Zhang, S. C. Yan, F. Bian, W. L. Wang, X. D. Bai, X. H. Lu, J. M. Zhao, and E. G. Wang, “Purely coherent nonlinear optical response in solution dispersions of graphene sheets,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5159–5164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Yang, X. B. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

V. Nalla, L. Polavarapu, K. K. Manga, B. M. Goh, K. P. Loh, Q. H. Xu, and W. Ji, “Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite,” Nanotechnology21(41), 415203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, S. Q. Chen, W. P. Zang, F. Song, and C. P. Zhang, “characteristics of co-existence of third-order and transient thermally induced optical nonlinearities in nanosecond regime,” Opt. Commun.245(1–6), 377–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Yang, Y. L. Song, J. H. Gu, and H. G. Zheng, “determinations of the transient thermal lensing effect in metal cluster Polymer {WS4Cu4I2(bpe)3}n solution by the use of the Z-scan,” Opt. Commun.282(1), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Yüksek, T. Ceyhan, F. Bağcı, H. G. Yağlıoğlu, A. Elmali, and Ö. Bekaroğlu, “The nonlinear refraction and absorption dependence on the thermal effect for 4 ns pulse duration in binuclear Zn(II) phthalocyanine solution,” Opt. Commun.281(14), 3897–3901 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. graphene-based materials,” Science320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

C. Mathioudakis, G. Kopidakis, P. C. Kelires, P. Patsalas, M. Gioti, and S. Logothetidis, “Electronic and optical properties of a-C from tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations,” Thin Solid Films482(1–2), 151–155 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Dekker, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of GO in DMF. Inset shows the structure of GO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open-aperture Z-scan curves (a) and NLR Z-scan curves (b) of the dispersion of GO in DMF for different input pulse energy with the same pulsewidth τp of 4.8 ns. Open-aperture Z-scan curves (c) and NLR Z-scan curves (d) of the dispersion of GO in DMF for different τp with the same pulse energy of 5.75µJ (2.54 J/cm2). △Tp-v (e) and n2eff (f) of dispersions for different τp and input pulse energy; Solid lines are theoretical fits. ω0 = 12µm for (a)- (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NLR Z-scan curves of the dispersion of GO in DMF for two different beam waist radius ω0 for τp = 4.8 ns, F0 = 2.54 J/cm2. (b) τp = 10.7 ns, F0 = 1.22 J/cm2. Solid lines are theoretical fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

For 35 ps pulse at 532nm: (a) Open-aperture Z-scan curves of the dispersion of GO in DMF (GO + DMF). (c) NLR Z-scan curves of the dispersion of GO in DMF (GO + DMF) and DMF, solid icons stand for the dispersion (GO + DMF), hollow icons stand for the solvent of DMF. Solid lines are theoretical fits. (b) Effective TPA coefficient βeff of GO as a function of incident intensity. (d) Effective NLR coefficient n2eff of DMF, the dispersion and GO sheets as functions of incident intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

For 120 fs pulse at 800 nm: (a) Open-aperture Z-scan curves of the dispersion of GO in DMF (GO + DMF). (c) NLR Z-scan curves of the dispersion of GO in DMF (GO + DMF) and DMF, solid icons stand for the dispersion (GO + DMF), hollow icons stand for the solvent of DMF. Solid lines are theoretical fits. (b) Effective TPA coefficient βeff of GO as a function of incident intensity. (d) Effective NLR coefficient n2eff of DMF, the dispersion and GO sheets as functions of incident intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A schematic drawing of NLA and NLR arising from sp2 domains and sp3 matrix of GO sheets.

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