Abstract

We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S1/2 (F = 1)-5P3/2 (F′ = 0, 1, 2)-5D5/2 (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in 87Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S1/2 (F = 1)-5P3/2 (F′ = 2)-5D5/2 (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Transmittance signal in real ladder-type atoms,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033817 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Discrimination of one-photon and two-photon coherence parts in electromagnetically induced transparency for a ladder-type three-level atomic system,” Opt. Express19(12), 11128–11137 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Transmittance signal in real ladder-type atoms,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

N. Hayashi, A. Fujisawa, H. Kido, K. Takahashi, and M. Mitsunaga, “Interference between electromagnetically induced transparency and two-step excitation in three-level ladder systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(8), 1645–1650 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Zhang, U. Khadka, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Temporal and Spatial Interference between Four-Wave Mixing and Six-Wave Mixing Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kumar and S. Singh, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in three-level ladder systems: Effect of velocity-changing and dephasing collisions,” Phys. Rev. A79(6), 063821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3965–3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Suppression of twophoton absorption by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A64(4), 043807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, and M. H. Dunn, “Wavelength dependence of coherently induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened cascade medium,” Phys. Rev. A54(6), 5394–5399 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, and J. L. Hall, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency of the 87Rb 5P3/2 state,” Opt. Lett.21(16), 1280–1282 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Observation of an electromagnetically induced change of absorption in multilevel rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), R1754–R1757 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, “Optical frequency determination of the hyperfine components of the 5S1/2-5D3/2 two-photon transitions in rubidium,” Opt. Commun.102(5-6), 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Sasada, “Wavelength measurements of the sub-Doppler spectral lines of Rb at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(11), 1307–1309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, B.

Y. Zhang, U. Khadka, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Temporal and Spatial Interference between Four-Wave Mixing and Six-Wave Mixing Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluktsian, T.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bason, M. G.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, “Optical frequency determination of the hyperfine components of the 5S1/2-5D3/2 two-photon transitions in rubidium,” Opt. Commun.102(5-6), 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Butscher, B.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C.

M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. F.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

Cheng, W.-Y.

Du, S.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M. H.

S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, and M. H. Dunn, “Wavelength dependence of coherently induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened cascade medium,” Phys. Rev. A54(6), 5394–5399 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felder, R.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, “Optical frequency determination of the hyperfine components of the 5S1/2-5D3/2 two-photon transitions in rubidium,” Opt. Commun.102(5-6), 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, A.

Fulton, D. J.

S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, and M. H. Dunn, “Wavelength dependence of coherently induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened cascade medium,” Phys. Rev. A54(6), 5394–5399 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauguet, A.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

Hayashi, N.

Jackson, T. R.

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, M.

Jin, S.

Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Observation of an electromagnetically induced change of absorption in multilevel rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), R1754–R1757 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M. P. A.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

Khadka, U.

Y. Zhang, U. Khadka, B. Anderson, and M. Xiao, “Temporal and Spatial Interference between Four-Wave Mixing and Six-Wave Mixing Channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, H.

Kim, J. B.

H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3965–3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, H.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M. A.

M. A. Kumar and S. Singh, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in three-level ladder systems: Effect of velocity-changing and dephasing collisions,” Phys. Rev. A79(6), 063821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, L.

H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3965–3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3965–3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Observation of an electromagnetically induced change of absorption in multilevel rubidium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A51(3), R1754–R1757 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, T.-W.

Löw, R.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, D.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, T.

Millerioux, Y.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, “Optical frequency determination of the hyperfine components of the 5S1/2-5D3/2 two-photon transitions in rubidium,” Opt. Commun.102(5-6), 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, M.

Mohapatra, A. K.

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent Optical Detection of Highly Excited Rydberg States Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(11), 113003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mølmer, K.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H. S.

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Transmittance signal in real ladder-type atoms,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Discrimination of one-photon and two-photon coherence parts in electromagnetically induced transparency for a ladder-type three-level atomic system,” Opt. Express19(12), 11128–11137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Moon and H.-R. Noh, “Optical pumping effects in ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency of 5S1/2–5P3/2–5D3/2 transition of 87Rb atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44(5), 055004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express16(16), 12163–12170 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(18), 3965–3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

F. Nez, F. Biraben, R. Felder, and Y. Millerioux, “Optical frequency determination of the hyperfine components of the 5S1/2-5D3/2 two-photon transitions in rubidium,” Opt. Commun.102(5-6), 432–438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noh, H.-R.

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Transmittance signal in real ladder-type atoms,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033817 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Discrimination of one-photon and two-photon coherence parts in electromagnetically induced transparency for a ladder-type three-level atomic system,” Opt. Express19(12), 11128–11137 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Moon and H.-R. Noh, “Optical pumping effects in ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency of 5S1/2–5P3/2–5D3/2 transition of 87Rb atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.44(5), 055004 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, J. D.

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rickey, E. G.

M. Yan, E. G. Rickey, and Y. Zhu, “Suppression of twophoton absorption by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A64(4), 043807 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

H. Sasada, “Wavelength measurements of the sub-Doppler spectral lines of Rb at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(11), 1307–1309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

Shaffer, J. P.

H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 112–116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, S.

S. Shepherd, D. J. Fulton, and M. H. Dunn, “Wavelength dependence of coherently induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened cascade medium,” Phys. Rev. A54(6), 5394–5399 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S.

M. A. Kumar and S. Singh, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in three-level ladder systems: Effect of velocity-changing and dephasing collisions,” Phys. Rev. A79(6), 063821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, B.

Swartz, S.

Takahashi, K.

Tanasittikosol, M.

M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. G.

M. Saffman, T. G. Walker, and K. Mølmer, “Quantum information with Rydberg atoms,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2313–2363 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weatherill, K. J.

M. Tanasittikosol, C. Carr, C. S. Adams, and K. J. Weatherill, “Subnatural linewidths in two-photon excited-state spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A85(3), 033830 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(19), 193603 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 890–894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, J. D.

Wong, G. K. L.

C. Liu, J. F. Chen, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y.-H. Kim, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Two-photon interferences with degenerate and nondegenerate paired photons,” Phys. Rev. A85(2), 021803 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-M.

Wu, H.

Xiao, M.

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