Abstract

We propose a more efficient way to obtain much stronger polarization rotatory power by constructing a composite chiral metamaterial (CCMM) which is achieved via the combination of the cut-wire pairs (CWPs) and a purely chiral metamaterial (PCMM) composed of conjugated gammadion resonators. Owing to the strong coupling between the CWPs and PCMM, the polarization rotation in our CCMM is more gigantic than that of the PCMM. Furthermore, the CCMM proposed in this paper can function as a wide-angle 90° polarization rotator for different substrate permittivity without needing to adjust its geometric parameters. Due to the unique properties, the CCMM may greatly benefit potential applications including designing a tunable 90°-polarization rotator, microwave devices, telecommunication, and so on.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. L. Zhang, W. Jin, X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity,” Opt. Express20(10), 10776–10787 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Mutlu and E. Ozbay, “A transparent 90° polarization rotator by combining chirality and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 051909 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. V. Shadrivov, “Pure nonlinear optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041911 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, C. Hu, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Multi-band circular polarizer using planar spiral metamaterial structure,” Opt. Express20(14), 16050–16058 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(20), 203501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (9)

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, W. Jin, X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity,” Opt. Express20(10), 10776–10787 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mutlu and E. Ozbay, “A transparent 90° polarization rotator by combining chirality and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 051909 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, “Pure nonlinear optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, C. Hu, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Multi-band circular polarizer using planar spiral metamaterial structure,” Opt. Express20(14), 16050–16058 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. H. Kwon, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Optical planar chiral metamaterial designs for strong circular dichroism and polarization rotation,” Opt. Express16(16), 11802–11807 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akosman, A. E.

Alici, K. B.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caglayan, H.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colak, E.

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

Dong, J.

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

Duan, X. M.

Economou, E. N.

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Q.

Fu, Q.

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grosse-Brauckmann, K.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

Huang, C.

Hyde, S. T.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

Kafesaki, M.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. W.

Koschny, T.

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, D. H.

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Ma, X.

Maslovski, S.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mecke, K.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutlu, M.

Nam, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nefedov, I.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neshev, D. N.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

M. Mutlu and E. Ozbay, “A transparent 90° polarization rotator by combining chirality and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 051909 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

Rho, J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogacheva, A. V.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saba, M.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder-Turk, G. E.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwanecke, A. S.

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

Shadrivov, I. V.

I. V. Shadrivov, “Pure nonlinear optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sihvola, A.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R. J.

Song, K.

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, M. D.

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Werner, D. H.

Werner, P. L.

Ye, Y.

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. L.

Zhao, R.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. S.

Zheludev, N. I.

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Ye and S. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mutlu and E. Ozbay, “A transparent 90° polarization rotator by combining chirality and electromagnetic wave tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 051909 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, “Pure nonlinear optical activity in metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ‘U’ split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (2)

S. Tretyakov, I. Nefedov, A. Sihvola, S. Maslovski, and C. Simovski, “Waves and energy in chiral nihility,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.17(5), 695–706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Song, X. Zhao, Q. Fu, Y. Liu, and W. Zhu, “Wide-angle 90°-polarization rotator using chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl.26(14–15), 1967–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (2)

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y. S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat Commun3, 942–948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat Commun3, 870–876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Mutlu, A. E. Akosman, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, “Asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized waves and polarization angle dependent wave rotation using a chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Express19(15), 14290–14299 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, C. Huang, M. Pu, C. Hu, Q. Feng, and X. Luo, “Multi-band circular polarizer using planar spiral metamaterial structure,” Opt. Express20(14), 16050–16058 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kwon, P. L. Werner, and D. H. Werner, “Optical planar chiral metamaterial designs for strong circular dichroism and polarization rotation,” Opt. Express16(16), 11802–11807 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dong, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Bi-layer cross chiral structure with strong optical activity and negative refractive index,” Opt. Express17(16), 14172–14179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, W. Jin, X. Z. Dong, Z. S. Zhao, and X. M. Duan, “Asymmetric fishnet metamaterials with strong optical activity,” Opt. Express20(10), 10776–10787 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, K. B. Alici, H. Caglayan, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Composite chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index and high values of the figure of merit,” Opt. Express20(6), 6146–6156 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

R. Zhao, L. Zhang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Conjugated gammadion chiral metamaterial with uniaxial optical activity and negative refractive index,” Phys. Rev. B83(3), 035105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Dong, B. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir forces with finite-thickness slabs,” Phys. Rev. B83(7), 075108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035448 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. V. Rogacheva, V. A. Fedotov, A. S. Schwanecke, and N. I. Zheludev, “Giant gyrotropy due to electromagnetic-field coupling in a bilayered chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(17), 177401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saba, M. Thiel, M. D. Turner, S. T. Hyde, M. Gu, K. Grosse-Brauckmann, D. N. Neshev, K. Mecke, and G. E. Schröder-Turk, “Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 103902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhao, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Repulsive casimir force in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(10), 103602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(2), 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of a unit cell of the CCMM. (b) Photograph of the tested sample. The geometrical parameters are as follows: ax = ay = 10 mm, l1 = 9 mm, l2 = 8 mm, w1 = 1.1 mm, w2 = 0.3 mm and t = 1.5 mm. The thickness of copper is 0.035 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated and experimental results for the PCMM composed of conjugated gammadion resonators. (a) and (b) Transmission spectrums of the RCP and LCP waves. (c), (d), (e), and (f) Polarization azimuth rotation angle θ and ellipticity η of the transmitted wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical and experimental results for the CCMM. (a) and (b) Transmission spectrums of the RCP and LCP waves. (c), (d), (e), and (f) Polarization azimuth rotation angle θ and ellipticity η of the transmitted wave.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated and (b) experimental polarization azimuth rotation angle θ evolve with different incident angle α. (c) and (d) Simulated and experimental transmission spectrum for the RCP and LCP waves at α = 45°. The inset is the schematic of oblique incidence, and the plane normal n forms an angle α with the wave vector k of the incident wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization azimuth rotation angle θ evolves with different dielectric substrates for (a) the CMM in Ref. [28] and (b) the present CCMM. The geometric parameters of the CMM and CCMM remain always the same in the simulations. The permittivity of Taconic TLY-5, RT5880, FR-4, and Taconic RF-60 are 2.2 + 0.0009i, 2.63 + 0.0009i, 4.60 + 0.025i, and 6.15 + 0.0028i, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b), (c), and (d) Surface current distributions on the front and back patterns of the CWPs at f = 9.6 GHz and f = 11.5 GHz. The black (solid) and blue (dot) arrows denote the surface currents of the front and back patterns, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) and (b) Surface current distributions on the front and back patterns of the PCMM at f = 7.25 GHz. (c) and (d) Surface current distributions on the front and back patterns of the CCMM at f = 6.12 GHz. The black (solid) and blue (dot) arrows denote the surface currents of the front and back patterns, respectively. The thickness of the black and blue arrows approximately represents the relative current intensity.

Equations (1)

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( T ++ T + T + T )= 1 2 ×( ( T xx + T yy )+i( T xy T yx ) ( T xx T yy )i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx T yy )+i( T xy + T yx ) ( T xx + T yy )i( T xy T yx ) ),

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