Abstract

Magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MM-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT which utilizes magnetically responsive materials that are modulated by an external magnetic field for contrast enhancement and for elastography to assess the structural and viscoelastic properties of the surrounding tissues. Traditionally, magnetomotive contrast relies on the interaction between the displacement of magnetic particles induced by an external magnetic field and the micro-environmental restoring (elastic) force acting on the particles. When the restoring force from a sample containing magnetic particles is weak or non-existent, the MM-OCT signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can degrade significantly. We have developed a novel solenoid configuration to enable MM-OCT imaging in samples that do not have an elastic restoring force, such as liquids. This coil configuration may potentially enable real-time MM-OCT imaging.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. L. Oldenburg, J. R. Gunther, and S. A. Boppart, “Imaging magnetically labeled cells with magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(7), 747–749 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. J. Toublan, S. A. Boppart, and K. S. Suslick, “Tumor targeting by surface-modified protein microspheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(11), 3472–3473 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1546–1548 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

F. J. Toublan, S. A. Boppart, and K. S. Suslick, “Tumor targeting by surface-modified protein microspheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(11), 3472–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, L. A.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. J. Toublan, S. A. Boppart, and K. S. Suslick, “Tumor targeting by surface-modified protein microspheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(11), 3472–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. R. Gunther, and S. A. Boppart, “Imaging magnetically labeled cells with magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(7), 747–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1546–1548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Chaney, E. J.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Condit, C.

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

Desjardins, A. E.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, M. D.

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freilich, M. I.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunther, J. R.

Haldar, J. P.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaffer, F. A.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, R.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, K. P.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbeck, K. J.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. M.

Liang, X.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

Ma, L. L.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marjanovic, M.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1546–1548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehrmohammadi, M.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J.

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Hemoglobin contrast in magnetomotive optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 778–780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. L. Oldenburg, X. Liang, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive nanoparticle transducers for optical rheology of viscoelastic materials,” Opt. Express17(25), 23114–23122 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, S. A. Rinne, and S. A. Boppart, “Phase-resolved magnetomotive OCT for imaging nanomolar concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles in tissues,” Opt. Express16(15), 11525–11539 (2008).
[PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, J. R. Gunther, and S. A. Boppart, “Imaging magnetically labeled cells with magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.30(7), 747–749 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1546–1548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, M.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, T. S.

Rezaeipoor, R.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinne, S. A.

Romanovicz, D. K.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitafalwalla, S.

Sokolov, K. V.

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Toublan, S. A. Boppart, and K. S. Suslick, “Tumor targeting by surface-modified protein microspheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(11), 3472–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Lee, A. L. Oldenburg, S. Sitafalwalla, D. L. Marks, W. Luo, F. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Engineered microsphere contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(17), 1546–1548 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, B. P.

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, and C. A. Puliafito, “High-speed optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett.17(2), 151–153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, A.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 543–545 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toublan, F. J.

Toublan, F. J. J.

Vakoc, B. J.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, A.

Weissman, N. J.

Weisz, G.

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. John, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticle-based contrast agents in tissues tracked using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(3), 691–697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. J. Toublan, S. A. Boppart, and K. S. Suslick, “Tumor targeting by surface-modified protein microspheres,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.128(11), 3472–3473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. A. Boppart, A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and D. L. Marks, “Optical probes and techniques for molecular contrast enhancement in coherence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(4), 041208 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging (2)

G. J. Tearney, S. Waxman, M. Shishkov, B. J. Vakoc, M. J. Suter, M. I. Freilich, A. E. Desjardins, W. Y. Oh, L. A. Bartlett, M. Rosenberg, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional coronary artery microscopy by intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging1(6), 752–761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, S. K. Nadkarni, G. Weisz, A. Tanaka, F. A. Jaffer, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Intravascular optical imaging technology for investigating the coronary artery,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging4(9), 1022–1039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

R. John, F. T. Nguyen, K. J. Kolbeck, E. J. Chaney, M. Marjanovic, K. S. Suslick, and S. A. Boppart, “Targeted multifunctional multimodal protein-shell microspheres as cancer imaging contrast agents,” Mol. Imaging Biol.14(1), 17–24 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

J. Kim, J. Oh, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Imaging nanoparticle flow using magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography,” Nanotechnology18(3), 035504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mehrmohammadi, M. Qu, L. L. Ma, D. K. Romanovicz, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology22(41), 415105 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. D. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, “Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound,” Nanotechnology17(16), 4183–4190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. L. Oldenburg and S. A. Boppart, “Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(4), 1189–1201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. John, R. Rezaeipoor, S. G. Adie, E. J. Chaney, A. L. Oldenburg, M. Marjanovic, J. P. Haldar, B. P. Sutton, and S. A. Boppart, “In vivo magnetomotive optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(18), 8085–8090 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (778 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (749 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (541 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3186 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic and output of the dual-coil MM-OCT setup: A) Dual-coil MM-OCT system. The scanning beam for OCT imaging passes through the bore at the center of the coil. B) Visualization of the time-dependent dual-coil activation and the resulting MNP displacement. C) Peak AC magnetic field strength (Gauss) at different modulation frequencies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structure of the magnetic protein-shell, oil-core, microspheres: A) Conceptual drawing of a magnetic microsphere with core-shell structure. B and C) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of a single microsphere showing the presence of magnetic nanoparticles and aggregates within the oil-core. The region in the dashed-yellow box in (B) is magnified and shown in (C).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnetomotive OCT images and signal with a dual-coil configuration: A, B, and C) OCT B-mode images of two plastic tubes (bare microspheres (MSs) as a control (left) and magnetic microspheres (right)). D, E, F, G, H, and I) Magnified regions from the corresponding colored boxes in (A, B, and C). Included videos (Media 1 and Media 2) are the OCT images corresponding to (G and I). J, K, L, M, N, and O) Spectral analysis extracted from along the corresponding red lines in (D, E, F, G, H, and I). The spectral analysis results (M and O) revealed the frequency component identical to the external AC magnetic field frequency (100 Hz and 1 kHz), which appeared only when the AC magnetic field was ON.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detection of localized magnetic microspheres in a mixture (Media 3): A and C) B-mode OCT images of a plastic tube filled with a mixture of non-magnetic MSs + magnetic MSs + PBS. B and D) Magnified images from the blue boxes (A and C). Non-modulating microspheres appear as cloud-like scatterers, which modulating microspheres show distinct transients. The external AC magnetic field frequency was 100 Hz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative MM-OCT images of flowing MSs captured under flow (Media 4): A) When the external magnetic field is OFF. B) Power spectrum of two MSs (red and green lines) in (A). C) When the external magnetic field of 200 Hz is ON. D) Power spectrum of two MSs (red and green lines) in (C). E) When the external magnetic field of 1 kHz is ON. F) Power spectrum of two MSs (red and green lines) in (E). The external AC magnetic field frequency (200 Hz and 1 kHz) is clearly visible in the frequency spectrum analysis (D and F; red line). The yellow and orange arrows in (A and B) indicate flow direction and magnetic MSs, respectively. The pink arrows in (C and E) indicate the modulating magnetic MSs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of M-mode MM-OCT imaging for A) single-coil configuration and B) dual-coil configuration. The orange arrows indicate MSs modulated by the external magnetic field. The MSs are drifting upward over time when using a single-coil (A), and oscillate sinusoidally with zero-offset when using the dual-coil configuration (B).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F MNP = V( χ MNP χ medium )|B | 2 2 μ o ,| M MNP |<< M sat
F(t)= F MNP sin(2π f M t+ϕ)

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