Abstract

We have demonstrated the enhancement of a GaN-based light emitting diode (LED) by means of a selective etching technique. A conventional LED structure was periodically etched, to form periodic microholes. It showed an improvement of the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of approximately 15%, compared to that of a conventional LED. Furthermore, nano-sized rods inside the microholes were randomly formed by using a powder mask, resulting in an LEE of 43%. From the result of confocal scanning electroluminescence measurement, the light emission arises mainly from the vicinity of the nanorods in the periodic microholes. Therefore, we found that nanorods randomly distributed in periodic microholes in a LED structure play a significant role in the reduction of total internal reflection, by acting as photon wave-guides and scattering centers. This method would be valuable for the fabrication of high efficiency GaN-based LED, in terms of technical simplification and cost.

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  1. I. Akssaki, “Key inventions in the history of nitride-based blue LED and LD,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 2–10 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).
  8. C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Jeong, Y. H. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. S. Lee, J. S. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Enhancement of light output power in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using hydrothermally grown ZnO micro-walls,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10597–10604 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Jeong, Y. H. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. S. Lee, J. S. Kim, E.-K. Suh, and M. S. Jeong, “Enhancement of light output power in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using hydrothermally grown ZnO micro-walls,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10597–10604 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Akssaki, “Key inventions in the history of nitride-based blue LED and LD,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 2–10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

2000 (1)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akssaki, I.

I. Akssaki, “Key inventions in the history of nitride-based blue LED and LD,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 2–10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. J.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Botchkarev, A.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. Y.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y. G.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

Jang, Y. H.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Jia, H.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

Kao, C. C.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. M.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. K.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. S.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

Kumnorkaew, P.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. L.

C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, K. D.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

Lee, S. C.

C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. I.

C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mair, R. A.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K. F.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, T. H.

Sheu, J. K.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shim, K. H.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. K.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. Y.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.-K.

Tang, H.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. M.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. S.

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, K. C.

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin?film light?emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, K. S. Lee, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diode with photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 9383–9385 (2003).

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, and G. Y. Jung, “Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micron lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236–3238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mair, K. C. Zeng, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, B. Zhang, L. Dai, H. Tang, A. Botchkarev, W. Kim, and H. Morkoc, “Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(20), 2898–2900 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(17), 2563–2565 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, “InGaN microring light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 33–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

I. Akssaki, “Key inventions in the history of nitride-based blue LED and LD,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(1), 2–10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(9), 092101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, K. F. Pan, Y. Y. Su, and D. S. Wuu, “Improvement in extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with textured surface layer by natural lithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(4B), 2525–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lee, S. C. Lee, and W. I. Lee, “Nonlithographic random masking and regrowth of GaN micro-hillocks to improve light-emitting diode efficiency,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), L4–L7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. Gao, F. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, and G. Wang, “Improvement of the performance of GaN based LEDs grown on sapphire substrates patterned by wet and ICP etching,” Solid-State Electron. 52(6), 962–967 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) projective view of fabricated LED with nanorods in periodic microholes, and (b) cross-sectional views of LED with and without nanorods .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of (a) top view of fabricated LED with nanorods in periodic microholes, and (b) cross-sectional view of formation of nanorods in a microhole

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagrams of the photon escape traces in (a) the PM LED, and (b) PMN LED. Confocal scanning electroluminescence (EL) microscopy images of (c) the PM LED, and (d) PMN LED, operated at 1 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light far-field distributions of reference LED, PM LED, and PMN LED at 80 mA (measured by unit chip)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light output power-current-voltage (L-I-V) characteristics of reference LED, PM LED, and PMN LED

Metrics