Abstract

A dynamic etching approach is proposed through the appropriate variation of etchant composition ratio during the etching process, resulting in the parabolic shape of optical fiber nano-probe with a favorable changing of cone angle. The probe formation mechanism is thoroughly analyzed to illustrate the controllability and simplicity of this method. Optical properties of as-made probes are simulated and experimentally characterized and compared with the linear shape probes of different cone angles. It shows that the parabolic shape probes are superior to the linear shape ones with respect to the transmission efficiency and light focusing capability.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

2011

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, X. S. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Surfactantless photochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on an optical fiber core for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir27(8), 4623–4626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2004

X. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, and T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun.235(1-3), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, “Chemical etching of optical fibre tips - experiment and model,” Ultramicroscopy85(4), 235–248 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a Pencil-shaped fiber probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(10), 2231–2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy61(1-4), 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. McCulloch and D. Uttamchandani, “A simple reproducible technique for producing sub-micrometre fibre-optic probes for near-field optical microscopy and chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(8), 1157–1162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, and G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt.34(7), 1215–1228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, H.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akil, S.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bajpai, P. P.

Balan, L.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charraut, D.

Chen, Y.

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy61(1-4), 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, Y. K.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiba, N.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, W. Y.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corredor, C.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

B. A. F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, “Chemical etching of optical fibre tips - experiment and model,” Ultramicroscopy85(4), 235–248 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, A.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emonin, S.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Z.

X. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, and T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun.235(1-3), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M.

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy61(1-4), 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grosjean, T.

Guo, C. K.

Guo, D. W.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Held, T.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hollricher, O.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Homma, K.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, I. A.

Jia, S. J.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jradi, S.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kapur, P.

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, K. S.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, W. H.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, X. S. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Surfactantless photochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on an optical fiber core for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir27(8), 4623–4626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. H.

Lombardi, J. R.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lougnot, D. J.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, S.

S. McCulloch and D. Uttamchandani, “A simple reproducible technique for producing sub-micrometre fibre-optic probes for near-field optical microscopy and chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(8), 1157–1162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mondal, S. K.

Mononobe, S.

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a Pencil-shaped fiber probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(10), 2231–2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

Muramatsu, H.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohsawa, H.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a Pencil-shaped fiber probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(10), 2231–2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. S.

Pangaribuan, T.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Piquerey, V.

Plain, J.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Puygranier, B. A. F.

B. A. F. Puygranier and P. Dawson, “Chemical etching of optical fibre tips - experiment and model,” Ultramicroscopy85(4), 235–248 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, S. S.

Sandoz, P.

Shao, Y. L.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soppera, O.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suarez, M. A.

Tanaka, K.

Tanaka, M.

Tang, T. T.

X. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, and T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun.235(1-3), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tate, T.

M. Garcia-Parajo, T. Tate, and Y. Chen, “Gold-coated parabolic tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy: fabrication and optimisation,” Ultramicroscopy61(1-4), 155–163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uttamchandani, D.

S. McCulloch and D. Uttamchandani, “A simple reproducible technique for producing sub-micrometre fibre-optic probes for near-field optical microscopy and chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(8), 1157–1162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Valaskovic, G. A.

Vidal, L.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, and T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun.235(1-3), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, U. P.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X. S.

T. Liu, X. S. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Surfactantless photochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on an optical fiber core for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir27(8), 4623–4626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Sh. P.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W. Q.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

T. Liu, X. S. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Surfactantless photochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on an optical fiber core for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir27(8), 4623–4626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yuan, L. B.

Zakaria, R.

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, X. H.

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, B.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Chem. Phys.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys.112(18), 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. Mononobe and M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a Pencil-shaped fiber probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(10), 2231–2235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

H. Muramatsu, K. Homma, N. Chiba, N. Yamamoto, and A. Egawa, “Dynamic etching method for fabricating a variety of tip shapes in the optical fibre probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Microsc.194(2-3), 383–387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 9A), L1302–L1304 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

X. Zheng, D. W. Guo, Y. L. Shao, S. J. Jia, Sh. P. Xu, B. Zhao, W. Q. Xu, C. Corredor, and J. R. Lombardi, “Photochemical modification of an optical fiber tip with a silver nanoparticle film: a SERS chemical sensor,” Langmuir24(8), 4394–4398 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, X. S. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Surfactantless photochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on an optical fiber core for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Langmuir27(8), 4623–4626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. McCulloch and D. Uttamchandani, “A simple reproducible technique for producing sub-micrometre fibre-optic probes for near-field optical microscopy and chemical sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(8), 1157–1162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

S. Jradi, L. Balan, X. H. Zeng, J. Plain, D. J. Lougnot, P. Royer, R. Bachelot, S. Akil, O. Soppera, and L. Vidal, “Spatially controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles and nanowires by photosensitized reduction,” Nanotechnology21(9), 095605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

X. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, and T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun.235(1-3), 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Held, S. Emonin, O. Marti, and O. Hollricher, “Method to produce high-resolution scanning near-field optical microscope probes by beveling optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(8), 3118–3121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Cheong, K. S. Lim, W. H. Lim, W. Y. Chong, R. Zakaria, and H. Ahmad, “Note: Fabrication of tapered fibre tip using mechanical polishing method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82(8), 086115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251(5000), 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of dynamic selective etching. (a) Sketch of etching process. (b) Variation of N to time. SEM micrographs of probe shapes for different etching times: (c) After 60 min static etching. (d) After additional dynamic etching for 30 min. (d) After a final static etching for 10 min. Scale bar: 2 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Derivation from unetched fiber to parabolic probe: (a)-(e) Schematic diagrams of the gradual evolution to parabolic probe. (f)-(k) SEM images of probe shapes corresponding with (a)-(e) respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between N and cone angle θ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometrical model of the parabolic probe coated with an aluminum layer in SNOM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission efficiencies of the 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° and parabolic probes at different wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Set-up for observation on light patterns of nano-probes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Axial view of light distributions where is of the highest intensity: (a) The 30° probe, (b) 60° probe, (c) 90° probe, (d) 120° probe, (e) parabolic probe and (f) the gray scale images of the dashed lines for different probes. Side view of light distributions of central cross-section for different probes: (g) The 30° probe, (h) 60° probe, (i) 90° probe, (j) 120° probe, (k) parabolic probe and (l) the gray scale images of the dashed lines for different probes.

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