Abstract

We demonstrate that black silicon (b-Si) made by dry plasma etching is a promising substrate for laser three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano-polymerization. High aspect ratio Si-needles, working as sacrificial support structures, have flexibility required to relax interface stresses between substrate and the polymerized micro-/nano- objects. Surface of b-Si can be made electrically conductive by metal deposition and, at the same time, can preserve low optical reflectivity beneficial for polymerization by direct laser writing. 3D laser polymerization usually performed at the irradiation conditions close to the dielectric breakdown is possible on non-reflective and not metallic surfaces. Here we show that low reflectivity and high metallic conductivity are not counter- exclusive properties for laser polymerization. Electrical conductivity of substrate and its permeability in liquids are promising for bio- and electroplating applications.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. Radko, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett.31, 1307–1309 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. G. Maloney, P. Smith, V. King, C. Billman, M. Winkler, and E. Mazur, “Emissivity of microstructured silicon,” Appl. Opt.49, 1065 – 1068 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Jin and G. L. Liu, “Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices,” Nanotechnology23, 125202 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Juodkazis, J. Juodkazytė, P. Kalinauskas, E. Jelmakas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photoelectrolysis of water: Solar hydrogen - achievements and perspectives,” Opt. Express18, A147–A160 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Jin and G. L. Liu, “Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices,” Nanotechnology23, 125202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Juodkazis, J. Juodkazytė, P. Kalinauskas, E. Jelmakas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photoelectrolysis of water: Solar hydrogen - achievements and perspectives,” Opt. Express18, A147–A160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Maloney, P. Smith, V. King, C. Billman, M. Winkler, and E. Mazur, “Emissivity of microstructured silicon,” Appl. Opt.49, 1065 – 1068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, R. Tarozaitė, J. Juodkazytė, K. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Fabrication and properties of metalo-dielectric photonic crystal structures for infrared spectral region,” Opt. Express15, 8454–8464 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bakogianni, S.

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barberoglou, M.

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belazaras, K.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bickauskaite, G.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billman, C.

Biswas, R.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bityurin, N.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

Chan, C.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. Radko, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett.31, 1307–1309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, D.

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, M.

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deliwala, S.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M.

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farsari, M.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gadonas, R.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaidukeviciute, A.

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giakoumaki, A.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilbergs, H.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gordienko, Y.

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, Y.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, I. S.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izon, D.

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, H.

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jelmakas, E.

Jin, H.

H. Jin and G. L. Liu, “Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices,” Nanotechnology23, 125202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, K.

Juodkazis, S.

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Juodkazis, J. Juodkazytė, P. Kalinauskas, E. Jelmakas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photoelectrolysis of water: Solar hydrogen - achievements and perspectives,” Opt. Express18, A147–A160 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, R. Tarozaitė, J. Juodkazytė, K. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Fabrication and properties of metalo-dielectric photonic crystal structures for infrared spectral region,” Opt. Express15, 8454–8464 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazyte, J.

Kabouraki, E.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kalinauskas, P.

Kawano, H.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

King, V.

Kirchner, T.

L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kups, T.

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

H. Jin and G. L. Liu, “Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices,” Nanotechnology23, 125202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobachevsky, P.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Ludford-Menting, M. J.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, M.

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney, P. G.

Marquart, C.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

P. G. Maloney, P. Smith, V. King, C. Billman, M. Winkler, and E. Mazur, “Emissivity of microstructured silicon,” Appl. Opt.49, 1065 – 1068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGlade, C. J.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, R. Tarozaitė, J. Juodkazytė, K. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Fabrication and properties of metalo-dielectric photonic crystal structures for infrared spectral region,” Opt. Express15, 8454–8464 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyawaki, A.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, R. Tarozaitė, J. Juodkazytė, K. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Fabrication and properties of metalo-dielectric photonic crystal structures for infrared spectral region,” Opt. Express15, 8454–8464 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowell, C. J.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Oliaro, J.

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oubaha, M.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ovsianikov, A.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paipulas, D.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Passinger, S.

Pezoldt, J.

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pham, K.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pikulin, A.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Purlys, V.

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I.

Ranella, A.

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C.

Rekstyte, S.

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russell, S.

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Russell, S. M.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Rutkauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakellari, I.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seet, K. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sepaniak, M.

L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, T.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shihira-Ishikawa, I.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoni, R.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

Soukoulis, C.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Speed, T. P.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Stratakis, E.

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stubenrauch, M.

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarozaite, R.

Taylor, L.

L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vamvakaki, M.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Viertl, J.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegst, U. G. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, M.

Wu, C.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, Y.

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zukauskas, A.

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18, 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano2, 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano27, 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Acta Biomaterialia

A. Ranella, M. Barberoglou, S. Bakogianni, C. Fotakis, and E. Stratakis, “Tuning cell adhesion by controlling the roughness and wettability of 3D micro/nano silicon structures,” Acta Biomaterialia6, 2711–2720 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst

L. Taylor, T. Kirchner, N. Lavrik, and M. Sepaniak, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy for microfluidic pillar arrayed separation chips,” Analyst137, 1005–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Reduction of capillary force for high-aspect ratio nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. A81, 1583–1586 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, H. Misawa, and U. G. K. Wegst, “Mechanical properties and tuning of three-dimensional polymeric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 241904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “A novel femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Microdev.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdev.10, 403–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Immunol. Cell Biol.

K. Pham, R. Shimoni, M. J. Ludford-Menting, C. J. Nowell, P. Lobachevsky, Z. Bomzon, M. Gu, T. P. Speed, C. J. McGlade, and S. M. Russell, “Divergent lymphocyte signalling revealed by a powerful new tool for analysis of time-lapse microscopy,” Immunol. Cell Biol.(2012 (in press)).
[CrossRef]

Immunol. Cell. Biol.

D. Day, K. Pham, M. J. Ludford-Menting, J. Oliaro, D. Izon, S. Russell, and M. Gu, “A method for prolonged imaging of motile lymphocytes,” Immunol. Cell. Biol.87, 154–158 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

H. Jansen, M. de Boer, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “The black silicon method: a universal method for determining the parameter setting of a fluorine-based reactive ion etcher in deep silicon trench etching with profile control,” J. Micromech. Microeng.5, 115–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Žukauskas, K. Belazaras, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, D. Paipulas, R. Gadonas, A. Piskarskas, M. Farsari, and S. Juodkazis, “Femtosecond laser polymerization of hybrid/integrated micro-optical elements and their characterization,” J. Opt.12, 124010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

K. Ueno, S. Juodkazis, T. Shibuya, V. Mizeikis, Y. Yokota, and H. Misawa, “Nano-particle-enhanced photo-polymerization,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11720–11724 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip.11, 2109–2115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lith. J. Phys.

M. Malinauskas, V. Purlys, M. Rutkauskas, A. Gaidukevičiutė, and R. Gadonas, “Femtosecond visible light induced two-photon photopolymerization for 3D micro/nanostructuring in photoresists and photopolymers,” Lith. J. Phys.50, 201–208 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

H. Jin and G. L. Liu, “Fabrication and optical characterization of light trapping silicon nanopore and nanoscrew devices,” Nanotechnology23, 125202 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Physica Status Solidi (c)

J. Pezoldt, T. Kups, M. Stubenrauch, and M. Fischer, “Black luminescent silicon,” Physica Status Solidi (c)8, 1021–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Rekstyte, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, Y. Gordienko, and M. Malinauskas, “Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8431, 843123 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Stat. Comm.

K. Ho, C. Chan, C. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Sol. Stat. Comm.89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image (tilted at 45 deg) of the black-Si after 25 min plasma etching and coated by 100 nm of gold. (b) Reflection spectrum of Si after 25 min of plasma etching normalized to a perfect lambertial reflector Spectralon standard. Note, reflectivity is presented in logarithmic scale. 15 nm Au coating was used for a high quality SEM imaging (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Substrate vs irradiation power, P: SEM images of woodpiles polymerized on various substrates at different irradiance (power at the entrance of the objective lens at f =200 kHz is given on a top row). Pulse energy Ep = T × P/f at the focus (bottom row), where T = 0.26 is the overall transmission coefficient to the focal spot for 515 nm light. Thickness of Au coating was t = 100 nm, scanning speed 1 mm/s. Red-framed boxes highlights region of powers where high quality 3D structures were retrieved.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of a woodpile structure produced at close-to-optimal exposure conditions at Ep = 0.65 nJ (at the focus). The close-up region marked by dashed-box in (a) is presented in (b). Width of the line is ∼300 nm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

An SEM image of the a grating recorded on the tips of b-Si in (a); some of failure (dielectric breakdown) locations shown by dashed-ovals; Ep = 0.55 nJ (at the focus) in (b). SZ2080 polymerized residue is recognized on the tips of the b-Si spikes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sheet resistance of glass and b-Si coted by Au; t is the thickness of layer as calibrated for the coating on glass. (b) Optical images of the Au-coated (t = 500 nm) samples and initial b-Si (top-right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cage pattern for cell enclosure. DLW based polymerization enables fabrication of different size chambers with required height (up to 100 μm) at aspect ratio up to 10 (a). Its magnified view showing uniform interweaving of b-Si nanospikes into the polymer log (b). After 10 nm of gold sputter the polymer microstructure looks yellow while the b-Si remains black on a optical micrograph (c).

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