Abstract

We simulate, fabricate, and characterize near perfectly absorbing two-dimensional grating structures in the thermal infrared using heavily doped silicon (HdSi) that supports long wave infrared surface plasmon polaritons (LWIR SPP’s). The devices were designed and optimized using both finite difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation techniques to satisfy stringent requirements for thermal management applications requiring high thermal radiation absorption over a narrow angular range and low visible radiation absorption over a broad angular range. After optimization and fabrication, characterization was performed using reflection spectroscopy and normal incidence emissivity measurements. Excellent agreement between simulation and experiment was obtained.

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  1. C. Sirtori, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Long-wavelength (λ≈ 8-11.5 μm) semiconductor lasers with waveguides based on surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.23, 1366 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Zero Infrared reflectance anomaly in doped silicon lamellar gratings. I. From antireflection to total absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol.36(7), 1077–1088 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. J. Shelton, G. D. Boreman, C. W. Smith, M. Ishigami, R. Soref, A. Drehman, and W. R. Buchwald, “IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(4), 730 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).
  9. G. Kirchho, Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859–1860, 783–787.
  10. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1998).
  11. A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Zero Infrared reflectance anomaly in doped silicon lamellar gratings. I. From antireflection to total absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol.36(7), 1077–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auslender, M.

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Zero Infrared reflectance anomaly in doped silicon lamellar gratings. I. From antireflection to total absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol.36(7), 1077–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

J. W. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. J. Shelton, G. D. Boreman, C. W. Smith, M. Ishigami, R. Soref, A. Drehman, and W. R. Buchwald, “IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(4), 730 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Buchwald, W. R.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Long-wavelength (λ≈ 8-11.5 μm) semiconductor lasers with waveguides based on surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.23, 1366 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

Cleary, J.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Cleary, J. W.

Davids, P. S.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, D. J.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drehman, A.

Edamura, T.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, O.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Ellis, A. R.

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fan, J.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gebhart, B.

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginn, J. C.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Gorman, T. A.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Graham, H. M.

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hava, S.

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Zero Infrared reflectance anomaly in doped silicon lamellar gratings. I. From antireflection to total absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol.36(7), 1077–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, P. J.

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ishigami, M.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

J. W. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. J. Shelton, G. D. Boreman, C. W. Smith, M. Ishigami, R. Soref, A. Drehman, and W. R. Buchwald, “IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(4), 730 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jarecki, R. L.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Medhi, G.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Peale, R. E.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

J. W. Cleary, R. E. Peale, D. J. Shelton, G. D. Boreman, C. W. Smith, M. Ishigami, R. Soref, A. Drehman, and W. R. Buchwald, “IR permittivities for silicides and doped silicon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(4), 730 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shahzad, M.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Shaner, E. A.

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, D. J.

Sinclair, M. B.

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

Sivco, D. L.

Smith, C. W.

Soref, R.

Tsuchikawa, R.

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Verley, J. C.

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zemel, J. N.

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. Auslender and S. Hava, “Zero Infrared reflectance anomaly in doped silicon lamellar gratings. I. From antireflection to total absorption,” Infrared Phys. Technol.36(7), 1077–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. C. Ginn, R. L. Jarecki, E. A. Shaner, and P. S. Davids, “Infrared plasmons on heavily-doped silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.110(4), 043110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. I. Doped silicon: The normal direction,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10795–10802 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Polarized spectral emittance from periodic micromachined surfaces. II. Doped silicon: Angular variation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(18), 10803–10813 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. R. Ellis, H. M. Graham, M. B. Sinclair, and J. C. Verley, “Variable-angle directional emissometer for moderate-temperature emissivity measurements,” Proc. SPIE7065, 706508, 706508-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shahzad, G. Medhi, R. E. Peale, R. Tsuchikawa, M. Ishigami, W. Buchwald, J. Cleary, G. D. Boreman, O. Edwards, D. J. Diaz, and T. A. Gorman, “Infrared surface waves on semiconductor and conducting polymer,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240B (2011).

Other (2)

G. Kirchho, Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859–1860, 783–787.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dielectric penetration depth, kd, and propagation length, δspp, of HDSi air plasmons with both quantities normalized to wavelength, λ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity contour plots resulting from RCWA parameter sweeps of device geometry. (a) w = 6 μm, h = 1.5 μm, varying period. (b) Λ = 9 μm, w = 6 μm, varying mesa height. (c) Λ = 9 μm, h = 1.5 μm, varying mesa side length. (d) Schematic of device array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of HDSi mesa array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normal incidence specular reflection measurement and FDTD simulation with angular correction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour plots of angle dependent device reflectivity from HDR measurements for (a) P polarized with Littrow condition overlaid, (c) S polarized, and (e) the average of the two and angle dependent device reflectivity from RCWA simulations for (b) P polarized, (d) S polarized, and (f) the average of the two.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured emissivity and image projection weighted RCWA absorption simulations.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k sp = k 0 ε m ε d ε m + ε d ,
ε(ω)= ε ( 1+ i ω pτ 2 ω(1+ωτ) ),
ω p 2 = n e 2 m * ϵ 0 ϵ  ,   
θ= sin 1 ( 2λ/π ),

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