Abstract

A new diffractive imaging technique called Imaging By Integrating Stitched Spectrograms (IBISS) is presented. Both the data collection and phase retrieval algorithm used in IBISS are direct extensions of frequency resolved optical gating to higher dimensions. Data collection involves capturing an array of diffraction patterns generated by scanning a sample across a coherent beam of light. Phase retrieval is performed using the Principal Components Generalized Projections Algorithm (PCGPA) by reducing the four dimensional data set of images to two remapped two-dimensional sets. The technique is successfully demonstrated using a Helium Neon laser to image a 350μm wide sample with 12μm resolution.

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20(5), 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

D. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections : a review [ Invited ],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(6), A120–A130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Kane, “Principal components generalized projections: a review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(6), A120–A132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Simultaneous reconstruction of object and aperture functions from multiple far-field intensity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(2), 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino and D. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(5), 1101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. A, 843 (1952).

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Badizadegan, K.

Bean, R. J.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenguer de la Cuesta, F.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozec, L.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Clark, J. N.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T. S.

Dahl, B.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

David, C.

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K.

DeLong, K. W.

Dhal, B.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elser, V.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahimian, B. P.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Gardner, D. F.

Giewekemeyer, K.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E.

Harada, T.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horton, M. A.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, J.

Imamoto, N.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, I.

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalbfleisch, S.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D.

Kane, D. J.

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kewish, C. M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, T.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, H.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, J.

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kynde, S.

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

La-O-Vorakiat, C.

Larabell, C. A.

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20(5), 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D. G.

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. K.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. H.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, S.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marti, O.

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L. S.

McCallum, B. C.

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Simultaneous reconstruction of object and aperture functions from multiple far-field intensity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(2), 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

Nagata, Y.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, A.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakasuji, M.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neiman, A. M. A. M.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20(5), 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, D.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

Peele, A.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peele, G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raines, K. S.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymondson, D. A.

Robinson, I. K.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Simultaneous reconstruction of object and aperture functions from multiple far-field intensity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(2), 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmassi, F.

Sandberg, R. L.

Sayre, D.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. A, 843 (1952).

Schlotter, W. F.

Seaberg, M. D.

Shapiro, D.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, C.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrener, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamanoi, F.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A.

Thibault, P.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Turner, J. J. J. J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urano, J.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vine, D. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, M. P. E.

F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

White, W. E.

Williams, G.

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, R.

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Acta Crystallogr. A (2)

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. A, 843 (1952).

Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. (1)

C. A. Larabell and K. A. Nugent, “Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,” Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.20(5), 623–631 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. News (1)

M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, S. Kynde, P. Thibault, I. Johnson, A. Menzel, K. Jefimovs, C. David, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychography & lensless x ray imaging,” Europhys. News39(1), 22–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

R. Trebino and D. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(5), 1101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. C. McCallum and J. M. Rodenburg, “Simultaneous reconstruction of object and aperture functions from multiple far-field intensity measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.10(2), 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29(6), 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, J. Kishimoto, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and D. G. Lee, “Mask observation results using a coherent extreme ultraviolet scattering microscope at NewSUBARU,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(6), 3203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2(2), 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, G. Peele, and K. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dhal, C. Tran, K. Nugent, A. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. de Jonge, “Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

H. Jiang, C. Song, C. C. Chen, R. Xu, K. S. Raines, B. P. Fahimian, C. H. Lu, T. K. Lee, A. Nakashima, J. Urano, T. Ishikawa, F. Tamanoi, and J. Miao, “Quantitative 3D imaging of whole, unstained cells by using X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(25), 11234–11239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
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F. Berenguer de la Cuesta, M. P. E. Wenger, R. J. Bean, L. Bozec, M. A. Horton, and I. K. Robinson, “Coherent X-ray diffraction from collagenous soft tissues,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(36), 15297–15301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. A. M. Neiman, J. J. J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. Williams, H. Quiney, B. Dahl, C. Tran, A. G. Peele, K. A. Nugent, M. D. De Jonge, and D. Paterson, “Curved beam coherent diffractive imaging,” Thin Solid Films515(14), 5553–5556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Stark, Image Recovery : Theory and Application (Academic Press, 1986).

R. Trebino, Frequency-resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of experiment. (b) Standard, reflection microscope image of the sample. (c) Image of the beam incident on the sample. (1. Spatial filter pinhole. L1. Collimating lens. 2. Square pinhole that is imaged to the sample by an imaging lens L2. 3. Sample plane. L3 forces the diffracted light to the far-field and detector plane 4.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data Set: (a) microscope image of sample, (b) image of beam (c) 64x64 diffraction patterns (each 64x64 pixels) at different scan positions, concatenated together (inset shows the image generated by binning each diffraction pattern to one pixel), (d) zoomed in on a few diffraction patterns

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructions of data taken with square pinhole imaged onto sample (all images were interpolated onto a finer grid for ease of comparison): (a) beam amplitude (inset shows an image of the beam taken by placing the camera directly at the sample plane), (b) beam phase (c) sample amplitude (inset shows a filtered version of the actual image of the sample; after low pass filtering the actual image, all pixels with an intensity value less than a threshold value were set to zero in order to better accentuate the missing “chip” from the bottom of the “L-sample” that is not visible in the reflection image since it is partially transparent) (d) sample phase

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RMS error between the normalized amplitude of the measured diffraction patterns and that of the guess for the diffraction patterns at each iteration. The error remains constant after about 60 iterations.

Equations (13)

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E sig ( x,y,X,Y )= E beam (x,y) G sample (xX,yY)
E spec ( f x , f y ,X,Y )= E sig (x,y,X,Y) e i (x f x +y f y ) dxdy
I spec ( f x , f y ,X,Y )= | E sig (x,y,X,Y) e i (x f x +y f y ) dxdy | 2
E ' spec ( f x , f y ,X,Y )= I ' spec ( f x , f y ,X,Y ) e iϕ'( f x , f y ,X,Y )
E beam =[ E 1,1 E 1,N E N,1 E N,N ]  G sample =[ G 1,1 G 1,N G N,1 G N,N ]
E lin =[ E 1,1 E N,1   E 1,2 E N,2   E 1,N E N,N ] G lin =[ G 1,1 G N,1   G 1,2 G N,2   G 1,N G N,N ] E outer = E lin T G lin =[ E 1,1 G 1,1 E 1,1 G 2,1   E 1,1 G N,1 E 1,1 G N,N E 2,1 G 1,1 E 2,1 G 2,1 E 2,1 G N,1 E 2,1 G N,N E 3,1 G 1,1 E 3,1 G 2,1 E 3,1 G N,1 E 3,1 G N,N E N,1 G 1,1 E N,1 G 2,1 E N,1 G N,1 E N,1 G N,N E 1,2 G 1,1 E 1,2 G 2,1 E 1,2 G N,1 E 1,2 G N,N E N,N G 1,1 E N,N G 2,1 E N,N G N,1 E N,N G N,N ]
E rot =[ E 1,1 G 1,1 E 1,1 G 2,1   E 1,1 G N,1 E 1,1 G N,N E 2,1 G 2,1 E 2,1 G 3,1 E 2,1 G 1,2 E 2,1 G 1,1 E 3,1 G 3,1 E 3,1 G 4,1 E 3,1 G 2,2 E 3,1 G 2,1 E N,1 G N,1 E N,1 G 1,2 E N,1 G N1,2 E N,1 G N1,1 E 1,2 G 1,2 E 1,2 G 2,2 E 1,2 G N,2 E 1,2 G N,1 E N,N G N,N E N,N G 1,1 E N,N G N1,1 E N,N G N1,N ]
E sig = Y=0 Y=ΔX Y=... X=0 X=ΔX X=... [ E 1,1 G 1,1 E 1,2 G 1,2 E 1,N G 1,N E 1,1 G 1,2 E 1,2 G 1,3 E 1,N G 1,1 E 1,1 G 1,3 E 1,N G 1,N1 E 2,1 G 2,1 E 2,2 G 2,2 E 2,N G 2,N E 2,1 G 2,2 E 2,2 G 2,3 E 2,N G 2,1 E 2,1 G 2,3 E 2,N G 2,N1 E N,1 G N,1 E N,2 G N,2 E N,N G N,N E N,1 G N,2 E N,2 G N,3 E N,N G N,1 E N,1 G N,3 E N,N G N,N1 E 1,1 G 2,1 E 1,2 G 2,2 E 1,N G 2,N E 1,1 G 2,2 E 1,2 G 2,3 E 1,N G 2,1 E 1,1 G 2,3 E 1,N G 2,N1 E 2,1 G 3,1 E 2,2 G 3,2 E 2,N G 3,N E 2,1 G 3,2 E 2,2 G 3,3 E 2,N G 3,1 E 2,1 G 3,3 E 2,N G 3,N1 E N,1 G 1,1 E N,2 G 1,2 E N,N G 1,N E N,1 G 1,2 E N,2 G 1,3 E N,N G 1,1 E N,1 G 1,3 E N,N G 1,N1 E 1,1 G 3,1 E 1,2 G 3,2 E 1,N G 3,N E 1,1 G 3,2 E 1,2 G 3,3 E 1,N G 3,1 E 1,1 G 3,3 E 1,N G 3,N1 E N,1 G N1,1 E N,2 G N1,2 E N,N G N1,N E N,1 G N1,2 E N,2 G N1,3 E N,N G N1,1 E N,1 G N1,3 E N,N G N1,N1 ]
dX=dx= 1 f xmax = λz x cmax = λz pN =dY
d f x = 2 D
f x = x λz
dx= 2λz D
f N = D λz

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