Abstract

We describe loss distribution measurement in a passive optical network (PON) using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis. A preliminary experiment is demonstrated using a 32-branched PON constructed in the laboratory. We analyze the signal to noise ratio of this measurement and show that the method can realize a 25 dB dynamic range in 90 seconds (10000 times averaging), with an event location resolution of 10 m, and a fiber length identification resolution of 2 m.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 99–101, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Enomoto, H. Izumita, and M. Nakamura, “Highly developed fiber fault isolation technique for branched optical fibers of PONs using high spatial resolution OTDR and frequency domain analysis,” The Rev. of Laser Eng., 33, No. 9, (2005).
  4. N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).
  5. T. Hasegawa and A. Inoue, “Monitoring of drop optical fibers in 32-branched PON using 1.65 μm Pulse-OCDR,” in Tech. Digests of National Fiber Optic Eng. Conf., paper NWA5, (2009).
  6. K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Hilbk, M. Burmeister, B. Hoen, T. Hermes, J. Saniter, and F. Westphal, “Selective OTDR measurements at the central office of individual fiber links in a PON,” in Tech. Digests of Opt.Fiber Commun. Conf., (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, and F. Ito, “Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1290–1297 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. “Optical fibre cable maintenance criteria for in-service fibre testing in access networks,” ITU-T L.66
  12. T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1170–1176 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Personick, “Applications for quantum amplifiers in simple digital communication systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.52(6), 329–331 (1989).
  15. Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2013

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

1996

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. D. Personick, “Applications for quantum amplifiers in simple digital communication systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.52(6), 329–331 (1989).

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1170–1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Champavere, A.

L. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 99–101, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dahlfort, S.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Daniaux, D.

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Honda, N.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1170–1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Iida, D.

Inoue, Y.

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ito, F.

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, and F. Ito, “Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1290–1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).

Izumita, H.

Koshikiya, Y.

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laferriere, L.

L. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 99–101, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, E.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moeyaert, V.

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namihira, Y.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).

Ndiaye, C.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).

Personick, S. D.

S. D. Personick, “Applications for quantum amplifiers in simple digital communication systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.52(6), 329–331 (1989).

Saget, M.

L. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 99–101, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1170–1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Urban, P. J.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vall-llosera, G.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuilmart, L.

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zou, N.

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

S. D. Personick, “Applications for quantum amplifiers in simple digital communication systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.52(6), 329–331 (1989).

Electron. Lett.

H. Takahashi, X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, and F. Ito, “Individual fault location in PON using pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1384–1385 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

P. J. Urban, G. Vall-llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag.51(2), S9–S15 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, and Y. Inoue, “Measuring the individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 915–917 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Y. Aoki, “Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(7), 1225–1239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, and F. Ito, “Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1290–1297 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi and M. Tateda, “BOTDA-nondestructive measurement of single-mode optical fiber attenuation characteristics using Brillouin interaction: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1170–1176 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, “Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol.13(7), 1296–1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

U. Hilbk, M. Burmeister, B. Hoen, T. Hermes, J. Saniter, and F. Westphal, “Selective OTDR measurements at the central office of individual fiber links in a PON,” in Tech. Digests of Opt.Fiber Commun. Conf., (1997).
[CrossRef]

“Optical fibre cable maintenance criteria for in-service fibre testing in access networks,” ITU-T L.66

L. Wuilmart, V. Moeyaert, D. Daniaux, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “A PC-based method for the localisation and quantization of faults in passive tree-structured optical networks using the OTDR technique,” in Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2, 122–123, (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 99–101, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enomoto, H. Izumita, and M. Nakamura, “Highly developed fiber fault isolation technique for branched optical fibers of PONs using high spatial resolution OTDR and frequency domain analysis,” The Rev. of Laser Eng., 33, No. 9, (2005).

N. Zou, Y. Namihira, C. Ndiaye, and H. Ito, “Fault location for branched optical fiber networks based on OFDR technique using FSF laser as light source,” in Proc. of Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1–3, (2006).

T. Hasegawa and A. Inoue, “Monitoring of drop optical fibers in 32-branched PON using 1.65 μm Pulse-OCDR,” in Tech. Digests of National Fiber Optic Eng. Conf., paper NWA5, (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of event location technique in PON using Brillouin gain analysis, ’ × ’ shows the collision points of the pump and probe beams, which are located at a distance of υΔt/2 from the end reflection of each tributary. (υ: velocity of light in fiber, Δt: difference between the launch times of the probe and pump pulses.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for distribution measurement in PON using Brillouin gain analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured Brillouin gain analysis results with 32-branched optical fiber. 16 tributaries were measured. No fiber was attached to the remaining 16 ports.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Accuracy of pulsed pump-probe Brillouin analysis, the same measurement was performed ten times. The bold points show the average, and the bars shows the maximum and minimum values of the results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example SNR analysis, (a) model of loss of analyzed PON, (b) parameter of SNR in single shot for 32-branched PON, Fiber loss Lf = trunk fiber loss Lf1 + branched fiber loss Lf2 = 1.2 dB, splitter loss Lsp = 17.5 dB (3.5 dB / 2 branch), optical filter loss Lof = 5 dB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SNR with 10000 times averaging. The solid line and dots represent calculated and experimental SNR, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between fiber length identification resolution and dynamic range. The red, green, and blue lines indicate event location resolutions of 50, 10, and 5 m, respectively.

Equations (20)

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G B ( z )=exp[ z z+ΔL g B P p ( z )dz ]1+ g B ΔL P p ( z ),
P amp (0)= P probe G B ( 0 )= P probe ( 1+ g B P p ( 0 )ΔL ),
P amp ( z 0 )= P probe G B ( z 0 )= P probe ( 1+ g B P p ( z 0 )ΔL ).
P p (0)= P amp ( 0 ) P probe g B ΔL ,
P p ( z 0 )= P amp ( z 0 ) P probe g B ΔL .
L( z 0 )= P p ( z 0 ) P p ( 0 ) = P amp ( z 0 ) P probe P amp ( 0 ) P probe .
Δ L 1 = υΔ T 1 2 , Δ L 2 = υΔ T 2 2 ,
P signal = P amp P probe = g B ΔL P p ( z 0 ).
I ¯ s 2 = ( ηe hν P signal ) 2 ,
P sp = r B P p (0) {L} 2 ,
P sp = i=1 K r B P p (0) { L i } 2 ,
I ¯ sp 2 = ( ηe hν P sp ( z ) ) 2 = ( ηe hν i K r B P p ( 0 ) { L i } 2 ) 2 .
σ sp 2 = 2 I ¯ s I ¯ sp B Δ ν B + I ¯ sp 2 B Δ ν B
σ shot 2 =2e I ¯ LO B,
I ¯ LO 2 = ( ηe hν ) 2 P LO .
σ amp 2 = σ sp 2 + σ shot 2 .
σ ref 2 = σ shot 2 .
σ total 2 = σ amp 2 + σ ref 2 .
SNR= I ¯ s 2 σ sp 2 +2 σ shot 2 .
SWDR= I ¯ s 2 N σ sp 2 +2 σ shot 2 .

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