Abstract

This work fabricates a terahertz (THz) metamaterial device, whose structure consists of split ring resonator array/ plastic substrate/ Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film/ liquid crystals/ ITO film/ plastic substrate. Experiment results show that the resonance of the THz metamaterial device can be enhanced as voltage is applied to the liquid crystals. The enhancement will be more significant as higher voltage applied. The resonance enhancement is attributed to the fact that the liquid crystals/ITO interfaces exhibit the large difference in terms of refractive index between the two materials in THz regime. The interfaces reflect the incident electromagnetic wave and cause the reflected wave to enhance the resonance of the metamaterials. As those frequency-tunable metamaterial devices show different resonant transmittance at different frequencies, which is undesired, the liquid crystals/ITO interfaces can improve those frequency-tunable metamaterial devices with a constant transmittance at different frequencies.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

C. L. Pan and R. P. Pan, “Characterization and applications of liquid crystals in the THz frequency range,” Proc. SPIE8279, 82790I (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXib:1206.4214v1 (2012).

2011

2010

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry–Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Han, X. Lu, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission in subwavelength holes of asymmetric metal-dielectric interfaces: the effect of a dielectric layer,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Y. S. Jin, G. J. Kim, and S. G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49(2), 513–517 (2006).

1982

Z. Schlesinger and A. J. Sievers, “IR surface-plasmon attenuation coefficients for Ge-coated Ag and Au metals,” Phys. Rev. B26(12), 6444–6454 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXib:1206.4214v1 (2012).

Chen, Z. C.

Chu, T. H.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Han, J.

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Han, X. Lu, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission in subwavelength holes of asymmetric metal-dielectric interfaces: the effect of a dielectric layer,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, N. R.

Hendry, E.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry–Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

Hsu, C. J.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Huang, C.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Isaac, T. H.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry–Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. G.

Y. S. Jin, G. J. Kim, and S. G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49(2), 513–517 (2006).

Jewell, S. A.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry–Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. S.

Y. S. Jin, G. J. Kim, and S. G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49(2), 513–517 (2006).

Kang, L.

F. Zhang, L. Kang, Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Zhao, and D. Lippens, “Magnetically tunable left handed metamaterials by liquid crystal orientation,” Opt. Express17(6), 4360–4366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. J.

Y. S. Jin, G. J. Kim, and S. G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49(2), 513–517 (2006).

Kwon, D. H.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

Lin, C. H.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Lippens, D.

Lo, K. Y.

K. Y. Lo, C. Y. Huang, T. H. Chu, C. J. Hsu, C. H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Variation of nematic liquid crystal on a silver surface,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 501–506 (2006).

Lu, X.

J. Han, X. Lu, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission in subwavelength holes of asymmetric metal-dielectric interfaces: the effect of a dielectric layer,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B.

O’Hara, J. F.

O'Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXib:1206.4214v1 (2012).

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

C. L. Pan and R. P. Pan, “Characterization and applications of liquid crystals in the THz frequency range,” Proc. SPIE8279, 82790I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R. P.

C. L. Pan and R. P. Pan, “Characterization and applications of liquid crystals in the THz frequency range,” Proc. SPIE8279, 82790I (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, K.

Sambles, J. R.

S. A. Jewell, E. Hendry, T. H. Isaac, and J. R. Sambles, “Tuneable Fabry–Perot etalon for terahertz radiation,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033012 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, Z.

Z. Schlesinger and A. J. Sievers, “IR surface-plasmon attenuation coefficients for Ge-coated Ag and Au metals,” Phys. Rev. B26(12), 6444–6454 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXib:1206.4214v1 (2012).

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, A. J.

Z. Schlesinger and A. J. Sievers, “IR surface-plasmon attenuation coefficients for Ge-coated Ag and Au metals,” Phys. Rev. B26(12), 6444–6454 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhao, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(2), 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O'Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: theoretical and experimental investigations,” Phys. Rev. B75(4), 041102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, W.

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhao, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(2), 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Han, X. Lu, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission in subwavelength holes of asymmetric metal-dielectric interfaces: the effect of a dielectric layer,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhao, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(2), 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, L. Kang, Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Zhao, and D. Lippens, “Magnetically tunable left handed metamaterials by liquid crystal orientation,” Opt. Express17(6), 4360–4366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zhou, J.

F. Zhang, W. Zhang, Q. Zhao, J. Sun, K. Qiu, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Electrically controllable fishnet metamaterial based on nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(2), 1563–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, L. Kang, Q. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Zhao, and D. Lippens, “Magnetically tunable left handed metamaterials by liquid crystal orientation,” Opt. Express17(6), 4360–4366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(1), 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, W. Zhang, J. Sun, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Voltage tunable short wire-pair type of metamaterial infiltrated by nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 134103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(5), 051906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Han, X. Lu, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz transmission in subwavelength holes of asymmetric metal-dielectric interfaces: the effect of a dielectric layer,” J. Appl. Phys.103(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(22), 225102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 4.

D. Shrekenhamer, W. C. Chen, and W. J. Padilla, “Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXib:1206.4214v1 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Configuration of metamaterial device. (b) Dimensions of SRR unit: T = 6 μm, G = 20 μm, W = 50 μm and L = 60 μm. (c) Optical microscope image for the SRR array. (d) Photograph of the metamaterial device, which is pasted on a transparent cylindrical plastic bottle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrums of the metamaterial device at applied voltages of 0 V, 4 V and 10 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated transmission spectrums of metamaterial devices with and without ITO films under εLC = εiso = 2.62 (i.e., at zero voltage). (b) Simulated transmission spectrums of metamaterial device with ITO films with various εLC. (c) Simulated transmission spectrums of metamaterial device with a high-permittivity material (εM = 104).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Configuration of metamaterial device, where liquid crystals are regarded as the surrounding media of SRR array. (b) Simulated transmittance spectrums of the device under various εLC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic drawing of stacked metamaterial device. (b) Simulated transmission spectrums of the device with various permittivities of the liquid crystals. εLC_top and εLC_bot are the permittivities of the top and bottom liquid crystal layers, respectively.

Equations (2)

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R= ( n ITO n LC n ITO + n LC ) 2 ,
d c = c 4f ε PET 1 ,

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