Abstract

Optical channel waveguides have been produced in Nd:LGS laser crystals by using ultrafast laser inscription with a depressed cladding configuration. The cross sectional shape of the cladding waveguides is circular, surrounded by low refractive index tracks, which makes the channel waveguides as three-dimensional tubular structures. Under optical pump of 810 nm light, continuous-wave waveguide lasers at 1068 nm have been achieved at room temperature, with minimum lasing threshold of 54 mW, a maximum slope efficiency of 24% and a maximum output power of 16 mW.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (7)

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi: RRL6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Okhrimchuk, V. Mezentsev, A. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Low loss depressed cladding waveguide inscribed in YAG:Nd single crystal by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express20(4), 3832–3843 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: Fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, C. Corbari, G. Brambilla, and P. G. Lagoudakis, “Tunable, continuous-wave Ti:sapphire channel waveguide lasers written by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4630–4632 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett.34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.56, 703–718 (1977).

Ams, M.

Benayas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Brambilla, G.

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(5), 622–640 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi: RRL6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: Fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:LGS laser crystals produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Express18(15), 16258–16263 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbari, C.

Davis, K. M.

Dong, N.

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi: RRL6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dubs, C.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fritze, H.

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Gross, S.

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hilbert, V.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jia, Y.

Jiang, M.

Kar, A. K.

Kuan, K.

Lagoudakis, P. G.

Lancaster, D. G.

Liu, H.

Lu, Q.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:LGS laser crystals produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Express18(15), 16258–16263 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Q. M.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.56, 703–718 (1977).

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Nolte, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A.

Petermann, K.

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ren, Y. Tan, F. Chen, D. Jaque, H. Zhang, J. Wang, and Q. Lu, “Optical channel waveguides in Nd:LGS laser crystals produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Express18(15), 16258–16263 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedel, R.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ringleb, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodenas, A.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, and Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romero, C.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J.-P.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Siebenmorgen, J.

J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Tan, Y.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jia, F. Chen, and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 1064 nm in Nd:YVO4 cladding waveguides produced by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express20(15), 16801–16806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: Fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi: RRL6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Siebenmorgen, K. Petermann, G. Huber, K. Rademaker, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser written stress-induced Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) channel waveguide laser,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 251–255 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Jia, J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, C. Romero, Y. Ren, Q. Lu, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond-laser-inscribed BiB3O6 nonlinear cladding waveguide for second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Express5(7), 072701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Origins of waveguiding in femtosecond laser-structured LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 127–132 (2007).
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F. Chen, “Micro-and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(5), 622–640 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J.-P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Laser direct writing: Enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi: RRL (1)

N. Dong, F. Chen, and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Efficient second harmonic generation by birefringent phase matching in femtosecond laser inscribed KTP cladding waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi: RRL6(7), 306–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications, (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic of the experimental setup for femtosecond laser inscription, and the microscope image of the cross section for (b) 50 μm and (c) 120 μm diameter cladding structures. The dashed lines indicate the spatial locations of the cladding areas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized spatial intensity distribution of output laser obtained from the 120 μm cladding waveguide when the pumping laser was TM polarized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The output laser mode profiles of the 50 μm ((a) and (c)) and 120 μm ((b) and (d)) cladding waveguides with TE ((a) and (b)) and TM ((c) and (d)) polarization. The yellow circles are the boundaries of the modes. The colors bar in the right show the normalized intensity magnitude of the mode profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence between output laser power and absorbed pump power from 50 μm (a) and 120 μm (b) waveguides. The red and blue balls represent the experimental results for TM and TE polarized laser, respectively. The solid lines are linear fit of experiment data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser performances of Nd:LGS waveguides with diameters of 50 μm and 120 μm

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