Abstract

Microwave photonic arbitrary waveform generation based on incoherent frequency-to-time-mapping (FTTM) accompanied by intersymbol interference, so called crossed FTTM (CFTTM). The pulse shape can be defined and tuned by properly adjusting the spectrum shaper (symbol shape) and the degree of intersymbol interference. UWB-, triangular-, rectangle-, comb- and user-defined pulse shapes are experimentally obtained.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (6)

Y. Park and J. Azaña, “Optical signal processors based on a time-spectrum convolution,” Opt. Lett.35(6), 796–798 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang and J.-P. Yao, “Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(11), 1652–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-K. Fontaine, D.-J. Geisler, R.-P. Scott, T. He, J.-P. Heritage, and S.-J.-B. Yoo, “Demonstration of high-fidelity dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express18(22), 22988–22995 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cundiff and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, M. Li, and J.-P. Yao, “Continuously tunable photonic microwave frequency multiplication by use of an unbalanced temporal pulse shaping system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1285–1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, and P. Andrés, “Incoherent frequency-to-time mapping: application to incoherent pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(3), 888–894 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, and P. Andrés, “Arbitrary waveform generator based on all-incoherent pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(24), 2626–2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I.-S. Lin, J.-D. McKinney, and A.-M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wide-band communication,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

Andres, P.

Andrés, P.

Azaña, J.

Bolea, M.

Capmany, J.

Carballar, A.

Chen, L. R.

Chen, L.-R.

Chen, Z.-Y.

Cundiff, S.

S. Cundiff and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S.-T.

Dorrer, C.

Fontaine, N.-K.

Geisler, D.-J.

He, T.

Heritage, J.-P.

Huang, C.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.-Y.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.-H.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

Leaird, D.-E.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-X.

Li, M.

C. Wang, M. Li, and J.-P. Yao, “Continuously tunable photonic microwave frequency multiplication by use of an unbalanced temporal pulse shaping system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1285–1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, I.-S.

I.-S. Lin, J.-D. McKinney, and A.-M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wide-band communication,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

McKinney, J.-D.

I.-S. Lin, J.-D. McKinney, and A.-M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wide-band communication,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

Muriel, M.-A.

Ortega, B.

Pan, W.

Park, Y.

Qi, M.-H.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R.-P.

Shen, H.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Company, V.

Wang, C.

C. Wang and J.-P. Yao, “Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(11), 1652–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, M. Li, and J.-P. Yao, “Continuously tunable photonic microwave frequency multiplication by use of an unbalanced temporal pulse shaping system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1285–1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A.-M.

S. Cundiff and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Willits, A.-M. Weiner, and S.-T. Cundiff, “Theory of rapid-update line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Express16(1), 315–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Lin, J.-D. McKinney, and A.-M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wide-band communication,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willits, J.-T.

Xiao, S.-J.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, Y.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

Yao, J.-P.

C. Wang, M. Li, and J.-P. Yao, “Continuously tunable photonic microwave frequency multiplication by use of an unbalanced temporal pulse shaping system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1285–1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang and J.-P. Yao, “Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(11), 1652–1660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

Yao, X.-S.

Ye, J.

Yi, A.-L.

Yoo, S.-J.-B.

Zhang, A.-L.

Zhao, L.

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

Zou, X.-H.

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

I.-S. Lin, J.-D. McKinney, and A.-M. Weiner, “Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wide-band communication,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett.15(4), 226–228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, and P. Andrés, “Arbitrary waveform generator based on all-incoherent pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(24), 2626–2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, M. Li, and J.-P. Yao, “Continuously tunable photonic microwave frequency multiplication by use of an unbalanced temporal pulse shaping system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(17), 1285–1287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Cundiff and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S.-J. Xiao, D.-E. Leaird, A.-M. Weiner, and M.-H. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radio frequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. Huang, D.-E. Leaird, and A.-M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of photonic waveform generation based on frequency to time mapping: (a) conventional frequency to time mapping process in the dispersive element; (b) crossed frequency to time mapping process in the dispersive element. PD: photodetector, TFM: tunable filter module. 1/B: the period of pulse. ΔT: the full-width of temporal pulse; Δλ: the frequency bandwidth of the spectrum shape

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Arbitrary temporal waveform synthesis based on the CFTTM: (a) the synthesis of two triangle-shaped and (b) notch-shaped symbols at three different degrees of ISI and (c) the synthesis of three triangle-shaped symbols at uniform (left) and nonuniform (right) distribution of ISI; inserts: the shape of symbols (optical spectrum) with fixed bandwidth (Δλ)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup: ASE: amplified spontaneous emission source. PC: polarization controller. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. PPG: pulse pattern generator, FBG: fiber Bragg grating. TBF: tunable bandpass filter. SMF: single mode fiber. EDFA: Er-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Verification of requirements for the conventional FTTM and the CFTTM process: measured spectrum shape (left) and the corresponding generated electrical pulse in average (right): (a) notch-shaped pulse generation based on the conventional FTTM process (BΔT≈0.71, 1/B = 400 ps). inserts: the degree of ISI; (b) triangle-shaped pulse generation based on the CFTTM process (BΔT≈1.43, 1/B = 200 ps);

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured generated sawtooth-shaped electrical pulse signal in average with (a) positive ramp and (b) negative ramp after the CFTTM process (BΔT≈1.43).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tunability of the symbol shape (spectrum shape) with the same degree of ISI for pulse shaping: measured spectrum shape (left) and the corresponding generated electrical pulses with averaged (right) after the CFTTM process (BΔT≈1.1): (a) positive monocycle-shaped pulse (1/B≈400 ps, ΔT≈440 ps); (b) negative monocycle-shaped pulse (1/B≈400 ps, ΔT≈440 ps);(c) doublet-shaped pulse (1/B≈440 ps, ΔT≈484 ps); Inserts: the degree of ISI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured spectrum shape for verifying the tunability of the degree of ISI (ΔT≈418 ps)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Tunability of the degree of ISI with the same symbol shape (spectrum shape) for pulse shaping: (a) generated rectangle-shaped (1/B≈300 ps) and (b) comb-shaped (1/B≈200 ps) electrical pulses in average with uniform distribution of ISI; (c) generated user-defined electrical pulses in average with non-uniform distribution of ISI. Inserts: the degree of ISI

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Tunability of the pulse width versus the dispersion (GDD) and 1/B values for the doublet-like pulse generation with the repetition rate of 500 MHz; Measured waveforms (left,a-1 and b-1) and electrical spectra (right, a-2 and b-2) of the doublet-shaped pulses with the pulse width of (a)~780 and (b) ~1100 ps.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Tunability of the repetition rate for (a) doublet-shaped pulse and (b) triangle-shaped pulse

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δω σ ω  , and
ϕ 2 (2π σ ω Δω) -1
I out (t)= dωS( ω)|F(ω) | 2 | d ω M( ω ω)exp(i ϕ 2 ω 2 /2)exp(-i ω t) | 2
I out (t)S(t/ ϕ 2 )|F(t/ ϕ 2 ) | 2
ΔT=| ϕ 2 |Δλ
Δω σ ω  , and
1 2π σ ω Δω | ϕ 2 |< 1 ΔλΒ
| ϕ 2 |> 1 ΔλΒ

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