Abstract

We demonstrated improved luminous efficacy for GaN-based vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs) employing a low index layer composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on the top surface. Three-dimensional ├░nite-difference time-domain simulations for the fabricated VLED chip show that the penetration ratio of the emitted/reflected light into the VLED chip decreased by approximately 20% compared to a normal VLED chip. This result is in good agreement with an empirical study stating that white VLEDs having a SiO2 layer exhibit an 8.1% higher luminous efficacy than white VLEDs with no layer at an injection current of 350 mA. Photons penetrating into the VLED chip, which become extinct in the VLED chip, are reflected from the SiO2 layer due to the index contrast between the SiO2 layer and epoxy resin containing phosphor, with no degradation of the light-extraction efficiency of the VLED chip. As such, this structure can contribute to the enhancement of the luminous efficacy of VLEDs.

© 2013 OSA

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  4. N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. R. Oh, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced forward efficiency of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor from white light-emitting diodes using blue-pass yellow-reflection filter,” Opt. Express17(9), 7450–7457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, and F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of Blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Environ.27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650–652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. C.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bae, D. K.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H. K.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Chowdhury, A.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650–652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Doan, T.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, F.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imai, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of Blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Environ.27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of Blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Environ.27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-H.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwack, H.-S.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H.-K.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Lee, Y.-H.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. S.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W. H.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maliyagoda, N.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650–652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

Oh, M. S.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pysar, R. M.

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Shih, M. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.-D.

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

Tsai, H. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weimann, N. G.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650–652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Y. A.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of Blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Environ.27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, K.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, J. P.

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

AIP Advances (1)

H.-S. Kwack, H. S. Lim, H.-D. Song, S.-H. Jung, H. K. Cho, H.-K. Kwon, and M. S. Oh, “Experimental study of light output power for vertical GaN-based light-emitting diodes with various textured surface and thickness of GaN layer,” AIP Advances2(2), 022127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. C. Allen and A. J. Steckl, “A nearly ideal phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 143309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, Y. A. Xi, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Trapped whispering-gallery optical modes in white light-emitting diode lamps with remote phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN Slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, T. Ban, and N. Kobayashi, “High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(22), 3817–3819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650–652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Light Vis. Environ. (1)

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, “Optical simulation of light source devices composed of Blue LEDs and YAG phosphor,” J. Light Vis. Environ.27(2), 70–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(21), L649–L651, L651 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, and T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.7(1), 188–192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: Photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, “Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(6), R60–R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE6669, 666903, 666903-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. M. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” Proc. SPIE4445, 137–147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diode, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of phosphor-converted white VLEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of 3D-FDTD models used to compute (a) the light-extraction efficiency, and the penetration ratio of (b) blue light and (c) yellow light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of 3D-FDTD simulation: (a) light-extraction efficiency of the VLED chip, (b) penetration ratio of blue light, (c) penetration ratio of yellow light, and (d) diffuse transmittance for different SiO2 thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Electric field profile of light propagating to the textured GaN surface as a function of the SiO2 thickness and (b) cross-sectional SEM image of VLED chip coated with a 900-nm-thick SiO2 layer (The inset is tilted view).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

VLED structure fabricated in this work: (a) optical microscopy of VLED chip, and (b) 9080 lead-frame LED package.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The respective forward voltages of the blue-white emission VLEDs with 0 nm, 300 nm, 600 nm, and 900 nm-thick-SiO2 layers. (b) Emission spectra of white-emission VLED packages. (c) Light output power (blue line) of blue-emission VLED packages and luminous efficacy (red line) of white-emission VLED packages.

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