Abstract

Attenuation coefficient measurements for the propagation of bandedge luminescence are made on individual ZnO nanowires by combining the localized excitation capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to record the distribution and intensity of wave-guided emission. Measurements were made for individual nanostructures with triangular cross-sections ranging in diameter from 680 to 2300 nm. The effective attenuation coefficient shows an inverse dependence on nanowire diameter (d−1), indicating scattering losses due to non-ideal waveguiding behavior.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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2012 (1)

N. M. Haegel, D. J. Chisholm, and R. A. Cole, “Imaging transport in nanowires using near-field detection of light,” J. Cryst. Growth 352(1), 218–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

X. D. Wang, J. H. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanowire and nanobelt arrays of zinc oxide from synthesis to properties and to novel devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 711–720 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. J. Pauzauskie and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Mater. Today 9(10), 36–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Single crystal nanocastles of ZnO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 424(1-3), 86–90 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

Y. S. Park and J. R. Schneider, “Index of refraction of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(7), 3049–3052 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aloni, S.

Al-Suleiman, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baird, L.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bakin, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrends, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boukos, N.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, B. Q.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Che Mofor, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chisholm, D. J.

N. M. Haegel, D. J. Chisholm, and R. A. Cole, “Imaging transport in nanowires using near-field detection of light,” J. Cryst. Growth 352(1), 218–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cole, R. A.

N. M. Haegel, D. J. Chisholm, and R. A. Cole, “Imaging transport in nanowires using near-field detection of light,” J. Cryst. Growth 352(1), 218–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

Cross, K. C.

Czekalla, C.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Shaer, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fathololoumi, S.

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fetzer, C. M.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Figiel, J. J.

Frenzen, C. L.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Goldberger, J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guinard, J.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haegel, N. M.

N. M. Haegel, D. J. Chisholm, and R. A. Cole, “Imaging transport in nanowires using near-field detection of light,” J. Cryst. Growth 352(1), 218–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, R. R.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

Könenkamp, R.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuykendall, T.

Kwack, H. S.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, M.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Si Dang, D.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. R.

Li, Q.

Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, Z.

Mills, T. J.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muller, S.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nur, O.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, C. P.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park and J. R. Schneider, “Index of refraction of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(7), 3049–3052 (1968).
[Crossref]

Pauzauskie, P. J.

P. J. Pauzauskie and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Mater. Today 9(10), 36–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

Postels, B.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Z. F.

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronning, C.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saykally, R. J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scandrett, C.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schlegel, C.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J. R.

Y. S. Park and J. R. Schneider, “Index of refraction of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(7), 3049–3052 (1968).
[Crossref]

Schuck, P. J.

Schwartzberg, A. M.

Sirbuly, D. J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

X. Wang, J. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Single crystal nanocastles of ZnO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 424(1-3), 86–90 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, J. H.

X. D. Wang, J. H. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanowire and nanobelt arrays of zinc oxide from synthesis to properties and to novel devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 711–720 (2007).
[Crossref]

Talin, A. A.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Talmadge, M.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Travlos, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urban, J. J.

Waag, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G. T.

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Single crystal nanocastles of ZnO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 424(1-3), 86–90 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, J. H. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanowire and nanobelt arrays of zinc oxide from synthesis to properties and to novel devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 711–720 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. L.

X. D. Wang, J. H. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanowire and nanobelt arrays of zinc oxide from synthesis to properties and to novel devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 711–720 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Single crystal nanocastles of ZnO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 424(1-3), 86–90 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westlake, K. R.

Willander, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Word, R. C.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L. L.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

P. J. Pauzauskie and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Mater. Today 9(10), 36–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, H.

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. X.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, G.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zúñiga Pérez, J.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Laser action in nanowires: observation of the transition from amplified spontaneous emission to laser oscillation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Baird, C. P. Ong, R. A. Cole, N. M. Haegel, A. A. Talin, Q. Li, and G. T. Wang, “Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 132104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Wang, J. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Single crystal nanocastles of ZnO,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 424(1-3), 86–90 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. S. Park and J. R. Schneider, “Index of refraction of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(7), 3049–3052 (1968).
[Crossref]

N. M. Haegel, T. J. Mills, M. Talmadge, C. Scandrett, C. L. Frenzen, H. Yoon, C. M. Fetzer, and R. R. King, “Direct imaging of anisotropic minority-carrier diffusion in ordered GaInP,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023711 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. M. Haegel, D. J. Chisholm, and R. A. Cole, “Imaging transport in nanowires using near-field detection of light,” J. Cryst. Growth 352(1), 218–223 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X. D. Wang, J. H. Song, and Z. L. Wang, “Nanowire and nanobelt arrays of zinc oxide from synthesis to properties and to novel devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(8), 711–720 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Z. L. Wang, “Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(25), R829–R858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

P. J. Pauzauskie and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Mater. Today 9(10), 36–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Bao, M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, X. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Broadband ZnO single-nanowire light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1719–1722 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ZnO nanowires dispersed horizontally on Si substrate, a) imaged at low magnification (1000X) in presence of NSOM fiber tip and b) cross sectional image of triangular nanowire at high magnification (260,000X).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental approach illustrating electron beam incident on nanowire and area of NSOM scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

300 K luminescence

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NSOM image of light emitted from nanowire, superimposed on AFM image showing physical end of the structure. Results are shown for point source excitation locations of A) 10 μm, B) 20 μm and C) 40 μm from the end of the wire.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum intensity in NSOM images at the end of the wire as a function of the distance from the excitation point. The number in the upper right corner is the diameter of the nanostructure, to the nearest 10 nm. The lines represent a least squares fit to the data, with the resulting value for the attenuation coefficient given in the lower left corner.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attenuation coefficient as a function of diameter. Dashed line shows a least squares fit with all data equally weighted, indicating d-1.05 dependence.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I 0 exp(αx),
#bounces unitlength = 2 4L = 2 4( d 2tanθ ) = tanθ d .

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