Abstract

A cost effective method of generating multi-wavelength based on the cascaded four wave mixing effect is experimentally demonstrated. The proposed scheme is free from external tunable laser sources and pump modulators, resulting from the use of a broadened linewidth tunable dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser as intracavity pump. In this configuration, the number of four wave mixing cascades becomes larger in tandem with the increment of erbium-doped fiber amplifier output power. When its output power is set at 20.57 dBm, six waves having optical signal to noise ratio larger than 10 dB are generated. The six waves are stable with peak power fluctuations less than 1 dB within 30 minutes period and tunable with wavelength spacing ranging from 1.03 nm to 11.31 nm.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Ajiya, M. A. Mahdi, M. H. Al-Mansoori, S. Hitam, and M. Mokhtar, “Broadly tunable multiple wavelength Brillouin fiber laser exploiting erbium amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(9), 1789–1794 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, “Precision measurement of the refractive index of carbon dioxide with a frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.32(21), 3212–3214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. K. Abd-Rahman, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Widely tunable linear cavity multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber lasers,” Opt. Express13(9), 3471–3476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abd-Rahman, M. K.

Agrawal, G. P.

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ajiya, M.

Alic, N.

Al-Mansoori, M. H.

Arismar, C.

C. Arismar, J. D. Marconi, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and H. L. Fragnito, “Broadband cascaded four-wave mixing by using a three-pump technique in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(22), 4436–4439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

Bayart, D.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boggio, J. M.

Brehm, M.

Cerqueira Sodre, A.

Daimon, Y.

Durecu-Legrand, A.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fragnito, H. L.

C. Arismar, J. D. Marconi, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and H. L. Fragnito, “Broadband cascaded four-wave mixing by using a three-pump technique in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(22), 4436–4439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cerqueira Sodre, J. M. Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, H. L. Fragnito, and J. C. Knight, “Highly efficient generation of broadband cascaded four-wave mixing products,” Opt. Express16(4), 2816–2828 (2008).

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Figueroa, H. E.

C. Arismar, J. D. Marconi, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and H. L. Fragnito, “Broadband cascaded four-wave mixing by using a three-pump technique in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(22), 4436–4439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Cerqueira Sodre, J. M. Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, H. L. Fragnito, and J. C. Knight, “Highly efficient generation of broadband cascaded four-wave mixing products,” Opt. Express16(4), 2816–2828 (2008).

Hirano, M.

Hitam, S.

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

Huang, C.-B.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

Keller, U.

Knight, J. C.

A. Cerqueira Sodre, J. M. Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, H. L. Fragnito, and J. C. Knight, “Highly efficient generation of broadband cascaded four-wave mixing products,” Opt. Express16(4), 2816–2828 (2008).

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

Kren, P.

Kuo, B. P.

Lantz, E.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, Q.

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

Mahamd Adikan, F. R.

Mahdi, M. A.

Maillotte, H.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, J. D.

C. Arismar, J. D. Marconi, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and H. L. Fragnito, “Broadband cascaded four-wave mixing by using a three-pump technique in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(22), 4436–4439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mašika, P.

Matsumoto, H.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Minoshima, K.

Mokhtar, M.

Mussot, A.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, E.

Nakazawa, M.

Oehler, A. E. H.

Okuno, T.

Onae, A.

Onishi, M.

Radic, S.

E. Myslivets, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

Rieznik, A. A.

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schliesser, A.

Simonneau, C.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, S. A.

van der Weide, D.

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. J.

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Xiao, X.

Yaman, F.

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Zeller, S. C.

Zhang, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Durecu-Legrand, A. Mussot, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump phase modulation on system performance of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.41(6), 350–352 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Yaman, Q. Lin, S. Radic, and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(10), 2053–2055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Arismar, J. D. Marconi, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, and H. L. Fragnito, “Broadband cascaded four-wave mixing by using a three-pump technique in optical fibers,” Opt. Commun.282(22), 4436–4439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

M. H. Al-Mansoori, M. K. Abd-Rahman, F. R. Mahamd Adikan, and M. A. Mahdi, “Widely tunable linear cavity multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber lasers,” Opt. Express13(9), 3471–3476 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express13(22), 9029–9038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. McKinstrie and M. G. Raymer, “Four-wave-mixing cascades near the zero-dispersion frequency,” Opt. Express14(21), 9600–9610 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cerqueira Sodre, J. M. Boggio, A. A. Rieznik, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, H. L. Fragnito, and J. C. Knight, “Highly efficient generation of broadband cascaded four-wave mixing products,” Opt. Express16(4), 2816–2828 (2008).

E. Myslivets, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion,” Opt. Express20(3), 3331–3344 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, X. Xiao, L. Kong, and C. Yang, “Enhancement of cascaded four-wave mixing via optical feedback,” Opt. Express20(20), 21940–21945 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Balling, P. Křen, P. Mašika, and S. A. van den Berg, “Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air,” Opt. Express17(11), 9300–9313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of self-seeded FWM cascades.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output spectra of FWM cascades including the two pumps as EDFA output power increases for (a) two waves at 8.33 dBm (b) four waves at 11.95 dBm (c) six waves at 20.57 dBm and (d) eight waves at 23.41 dBm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength spacing tunability with a pump fixed at 1564.33 nm and the other pump is varied at EDFA output power 20.57 dBm (a) minimum wavelength spacing of 1.03 nm for six waves (b) maximum wavelength spacing of 11.31 nm for six waves and (c) six waves reduced to four waves due to the phase mismatch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Output spectra of FWM cascades for six waves case when pumps were tuned at 1552.97 nm and 1564.87 nm at 2 minutes interval for half an hour and (b) peak power fluctuations of the FWM cascades during the scanning.

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