Abstract

We present a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based spectrometer platform for a wide operational wavelength range. Both planar concave grating (PCG, also known as echelle grating) and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer designs are explored for operation in the short-wave infrared. In addition, a total of four planar concave gratings are designed to cover parts of the wavelength range from 1510 to 2300 nm. These passive wavelength demultiplexers are combined with GaInAsSb photodiodes. These photodiodes are heterogeneously integrated on SOI with benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB) as an adhesive bonding layer. The uniformity of the photodiode characteristics and high processing yield, indicate a robust fabrication process. We demonstrate good performance of the miniature spectrometers over all operational wavelengths which paves the way to on-chip absorption spectroscopy in this wavelength range.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

2008 (1)

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amerov, A.

Arnold, M.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bauer, A.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bedoya, A. C.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, L.

Chen, J.

Crowder, J. G.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gassenq, A.

Hattasan, N.

Hfling, S.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H.

Kamp, M.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keddie, J.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Lechuga, L. M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lehnhardt, T.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ling, M. Y.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

Marz, R.

R. Marz, Integrated Optics, Design and Modeling. (Artech House Inc., 1994).

Parriaux, O.

Rner, K.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.B.

Roelkens, G.

Ryckeboer, E. M.P.

Schacht, E.

Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Tournié, E.

Van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer fabricated on a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(5), 1269–1275 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vass, A.

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G. J.

Worschech, L.

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yebo, N. A.

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, “Phasar-based wdm-devices: principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, “Planar concave grating demultiplexer with high reflective bragg reflector facets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(4), 309–311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(4), 463–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. C. Bedoya, M. Y. Ling, J. Brouckaert, N. A. Yebo, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Biodiesel sensing using silicon-on-insulator technologies,” Proc. SPIE, 7366, (2009).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Bauer, K. Rner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Kamp, S. Hfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Mid-infrared semiconductor heterostructure lasers for gas sensing applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.26(1), 4032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

http://www.epixfab.eu/ .

R. Marz, Integrated Optics, Design and Modeling. (Artech House Inc., 1994).

J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics. (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope picture of (a) an arrayed waveguide grating and (b) a planar concave grating illustrating the basic demultiplexer functionality. (c) schematic of the low resolution AWG design for 2200 nm and (d) schematic of the PCG with center wavelength of 1550 nm, both indicating the critical design parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of the different demultiplexer designs

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Layer stack used for the integrated photodetectors. (b) Schematic of the grating-assisted coupling mechanism. (c) SEM cross-section of the photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IV-curves for a photodiode at a wavelength of 1530 nm (a) and 2324 nm (b) at different input power levels. The inset contains the laser power before entering the optical chip. The top X-axis refers to the optical power at the input of the grating coupler with integrated photodiode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Microscope picture showing the integrated photodiode array on top of the planar concave gratings. Only the PCGs with center wavelength of 1.55 μm and 1.65 μm (top right) are visible. The red arrow at the bottom indicates the single photodiode that failed during processing. (b) optical characterization set-up

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement result of the four planar concave gratings with integrated photodetectors. The curves represent the photocurrent that is obtained when 1 mW is injected in the entrance waveguide and after transmission through the waveguide spiral and PCG.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design parameters of the individual demultiplexers

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