Abstract

One of the challenges in surface defects evaluation of large fine optics is to detect defects of microns on surfaces of tens or hundreds of millimeters. Sub-aperture scanning and stitching is considered to be a practical and efficient method. But since there are usually few defects on the large aperture fine optics, resulting in no defects or only one run-through line feature in many sub-aperture images, traditional stitching methods encounter with mismatch problem. In this paper, a feature-based multi-cycle image stitching algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. The overlapping areas of sub-apertures are categorized based on the features they contain. Different types of overlapping areas are then stitched in different cycles with different methods. The stitching trace is changed to follow the one that determined by the features. The whole stitching procedure is a region-growing like process. Sub-aperture blocks grow bigger after each cycle and finally the full aperture image is obtained. Comparison experiment shows that the proposed method is very suitable to stitch sub-apertures that very few feature information exists in the overlapping areas and can stitch the dark-field microscopic sub-aperture images very well.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).
  3. M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).
  6. D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Wang, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging system of defects on ultra-smooth surface suitable for digital image processing,” H. Xun, Y. Jiahu, C. W. James, W. Hexin, and H. Sen, eds. (SPIE, 2006), p. 615012.
  8. N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Rebner, M. Schmitz, B. Boldrini, A. Kienle, D. Oelkrug, and R. W. Kessler, “Dark-field scattering microscopy for spectral characterization of polystyrene aggregates,” Opt. Express18(3), 3116–3127 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Mehnert and P. Jackway, “An improved seeded region growing algorithm,” Pattern Recognit. Lett.18(10), 1065–1071 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Chaudhuri and A. Samal, “A simple method for fitting of bounding rectangle to closed regions,” Pattern Recognit.40(7), 1981–1989 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Stepanova, S. Dew, M. Mohammad, M. Muhammad, and S. Dew, “Fundamentals of electron beam exposure and development,” in Nanofabrication (Springer, 2012), pp. 11–41.
  16. V. Y. Guzhov, “Ion-beam etching technology in the production of optical elements,” J. Opt. Technol.69(9), 685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2007

D. Chaudhuri and A. Samal, “A simple method for fitting of bounding rectangle to closed regions,” Pattern Recognit.40(7), 1981–1989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

2002

V. Y. Guzhov, “Ion-beam etching technology in the production of optical elements,” J. Opt. Technol.69(9), 685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Mehnert and P. Jackway, “An improved seeded region growing algorithm,” Pattern Recognit. Lett.18(10), 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boldrini, B.

Burrows, J.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhuri, D.

D. Chaudhuri and A. Samal, “A simple method for fitting of bounding rectangle to closed regions,” Pattern Recognit.40(7), 1981–1989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J.

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. K.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flaschel, E.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraigniaud, P.

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friehs, K.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebhardt, M.

M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ghodsi, M.

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, S.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, B.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guzhov, V. Y.

Hachiya, M.

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

Hajiaghayi, M.

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hale, K.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harnisch, B.

M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ichiyasu, Y.

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

Jackway, P.

A. Mehnert and P. Jackway, “An improved seeded region growing algorithm,” Pattern Recognit. Lett.18(10), 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. T.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, R. W.

Kienle, A.

Kimmons, J. F.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Konig, J.

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurenuma, T.

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

Li, R.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Li, R. J.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Liu, D.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Lu, C. H.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahdian, M.

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maricle, S. M.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mehnert, A.

A. Mehnert and P. Jackway, “An improved seeded region growing algorithm,” Pattern Recognit. Lett.18(10), 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mirrokni, V.

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mouser, R. P.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muramatsu, S.

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nattkemper, T. W.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oelkrug, D.

Ota, H.

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raspaud, A.

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rebner, K.

Samal, A.

D. Chaudhuri and A. Samal, “A simple method for fitting of bounding rectangle to closed regions,” Pattern Recognit.40(7), 1981–1989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, M.

Schwartz, S.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, E.

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Truckenbrodt, H.

M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, N.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinzapfel, C. L.

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Yang, L. M.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Yang, Y. Y.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, J.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuo, Y. M.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Lett.

N. Wei, J. You, K. Friehs, E. Flaschel, and T. W. Nattkemper, “In situ dark field microscopy for on-line monitoring of yeast cultures,” Biotechnol. Lett.29(3), 373–378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.

S. Muramatsu, Y. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, and E. Shimizu, “Development of template matching hardware and its high-speed processing strategy,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. Part III Fundam. Electron. Sci.84(11), 1–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.

Y. Yang, C. Lu, J. Liang, D. Liu, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic dark-field scattering imaging and digitalization evaluation system of defects on optical devices precision surface,” Guangxue Xuebao/Acta Opt. Sin.27, 1031–1038 (2007).

Hatachi Review

H. Ota, M. Hachiya, Y. Ichiyasu, and T. Kurenuma, “Scanning surface inspection system with defect-review SEM and analysis system solutions,” Hatachi Review55, 78–82 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.

J. Cohen, P. Fraigniaud, J. Konig, and A. Raspaud, “Optimized broadcasting and multicasting protocols in cut-through routed networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.9(8), 788–802 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. Gomez, K. Hale, J. Burrows, and B. Griffiths, “Measurements of surface defects on optical components,” Meas. Sci. Technol.9(4), 607–616 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Networks

M. Ghodsi, M. Hajiaghayi, M. Mahdian, and V. Mirrokni, “Length-constrained path-matchings in graphs,” Networks39(4), 210–215 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. Liu, Y. Y. Yang, L. Wang, Y. M. Zhuo, C. H. Lu, L. M. Yang, and R. J. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging measurement and digital evaluation system of defects for fine optical surface,” Opt. Commun.278(2), 240–246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Pattern Recognit.

D. Chaudhuri and A. Samal, “A simple method for fitting of bounding rectangle to closed regions,” Pattern Recognit.40(7), 1981–1989 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recognit. Lett.

A. Mehnert and P. Jackway, “An improved seeded region growing algorithm,” Pattern Recognit. Lett.18(10), 1065–1071 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Gebhardt, H. Truckenbrodt, and B. Harnisch, “Surface defect detection and classification with light scattering,” Proc. SPIE1500, 135–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, R. K. Dickson, R. T. Jennings, J. F. Kimmons, S. M. Maricle, R. P. Mouser, S. Schwartz, and C. L. Weinzapfel, “Development of practical damage mapping and inspection systems,” Proc. SPIE3492, 556–563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Sun, Y. Yang, F. Wang, L. Yang, and R. Li, “Microscopic scattering imaging system of defects on ultra-smooth surface suitable for digital image processing,” H. Xun, Y. Jiahu, C. W. James, W. Hexin, and H. Sen, eds. (SPIE, 2006), p. 615012.

M. Stepanova, S. Dew, M. Mohammad, M. Muhammad, and S. Dew, “Fundamentals of electron beam exposure and development,” in Nanofabrication (Springer, 2012), pp. 11–41.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the microscopic scattering imaging system for surface defects evaluation, (a) system layout, and (b) collection process of the sub-aperture images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stitching mismatch caused by sub-aperture images with no feature in overlapping area by the original method, (a) scanning trace of sub-aperture sampling, (b) stitching result of the original method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stitching mismatch caused by sub-aperture images with only one fun-through line feature in overlapping area by the original method, (a) scanning trace of sub-aperture sampling, (b) stitching result of the original method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow chart of the feature-based multi-cycle dark-field microscopic image stitching method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The recorded information of the feature, (a) the ellipse that has the same secondary moment with the rectangular pixel area of the feature, (b) the pose of the ellipse shown in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of some configurations that the relative positions of the sub-apertures or image blocks can be determined by their mutual positions, (a) to (d) are four different 2 × 2 sub-aperture configurations, (e) to (h) are four example 3 × 3 sub-aperture configurations of image blocks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graphical expression of multi-cycle image stitching, (a) sub-aperture images and features in the overlapping area, (b) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle I: template matching method for TFOAs, (c) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle II: mutual positioning method for MPOAs, (d) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle III: modified template-matching method for DLOAs, (e) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle IV: direct stitching method for OFOAs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sub-aperture block of 4 × 4 sub-aperture images obtained using the original algorithm (on the left) with detailed views of some critical areas (on the right).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sub-aperture block of 4 × 4 sub-aperture images obtained using the new proposed dark-field microscopic image stitching method (on the left) with detailed views of some critical areas (on the right).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Graphic expression of the above 4 × 4 sub-aperture stitching process with the new proposed method, (a) sub-aperture images and features in the overlapping area, (b) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle I: template matching method for TFOAs, (c) sub-aperture blocks after Cycle II: mutual positioning method for MPOAs.

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