Abstract

Light absorption in thin-film nanostructured monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) in a glass/Ag(0.2 µm)/c-Si(1 µm) stack is characterized using simulations and measurements. Nanohole (NH) arrays designed for a practical thin-film solar cell configuration experimentally exhibit a significant improvement of the light absorption in the 1-µm ultrathin c-Si layer that exceeds the theoretical Yablonovitch limit in the long wavelength range. Fabricated square-lattice and hexagonal NH arrays give relative improvements of 65 and 70%, respectively, in the total absorption compared to a nonpatterned stack. The effect of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coating is also simulated, and an empty NH configuration gives the lowest ITO parasitic absorption.

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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

N. A. Yahaya, N. Yamada, and T. Nakayama, “Light trapping potential of hexagonal array silicon nanohole structure for solar cell application,” Adv. Mater. Res.512–515, 90–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Kapadia, Z. Fan, K. Takei, and A. Javey, “Nanopillar photovoltaics: materials, processes, and devices,” Nano Energy1(1), 132–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled, Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Proc. SPIE7772, 77721G, 77721G-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lien, “Characterization and optimization of ITO thin films for application in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films518(21), S10–S13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res.24, 358–364 (2008).

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes - Architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

1982

Agrawal, M.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahopelto, J.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amin, N.

K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res.24, 358–364 (2008).

Asim, N.

K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res.24, 358–364 (2008).

Avrutin, V.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Basu Mallick, S.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled, Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bleidiessel, G.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boukai, A.

A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Plasmonic light-trapping for Si solar cells using self-assembled, Ag nanoparticles,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.18(7), 500–504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, F. Y.

T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han and G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. T.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. W.

T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. G.

T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. L.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Clavijo Cedeño, C.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depauw, V.

Dey, D.

W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

Dross, F.

Drouard, E.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

Elazar, J. M.

Emani, N. K.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

R. Kapadia, Z. Fan, K. Takei, and A. Javey, “Nanopillar photovoltaics: materials, processes, and devices,” Nano Energy1(1), 132–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gallatin, G. M.

A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Caurel, E.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes - Architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomard, G.

X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
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A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
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M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes - Architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 619–623 (2004).
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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
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T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
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S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
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T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
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H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
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R. Kapadia, Z. Fan, K. Takei, and A. Javey, “Nanopillar photovoltaics: materials, processes, and devices,” Nano Energy1(1), 132–144 (2012).
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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
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G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
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W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. W.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
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S.-Y. Lien, “Characterization and optimization of ITO thin films for application in heterojunction silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films518(21), S10–S13 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Proc. SPIE7772, 77721G, 77721G-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Mallick, S. B.

Maximov, M. V.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
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X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
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H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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N. A. Yahaya, N. Yamada, and T. Nakayama, “Light trapping potential of hexagonal array silicon nanohole structure for solar cell application,” Adv. Mater. Res.512–515, 90–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes - Architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applicatons in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct.48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
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S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Proc. SPIE7772, 77721G, 77721G-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express20(S4Suppl 4), A465–A475 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seekamp, J.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res.24, 358–364 (2008).

Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Kapadia, Z. Fan, K. Takei, and A. Javey, “Nanopillar photovoltaics: materials, processes, and devices,” Nano Energy1(1), 132–144 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trompoukis, C.

Visser, R. J.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

West, P. R.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev.4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, and V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes - Architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films451–452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, D. Dey, O. G. Memis, A. Katsnelson, and H. Mohseni, “Fabrication of large area periodic nanostructures using nanosphere photolithography,” Nanoscale Res. Lett.3(10), 351–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(20), 6872–6873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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Yahaya, N. A.

N. A. Yahaya, N. Yamada, and T. Nakayama, “Light trapping potential of hexagonal array silicon nanohole structure for solar cell application,” Adv. Mater. Res.512–515, 90–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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N. A. Yahaya, N. Yamada, and T. Nakayama, “Light trapping potential of hexagonal array silicon nanohole structure for solar cell application,” Adv. Mater. Res.512–515, 90–96 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. G. Chen, P. Yu, S. W. Chen, F. Y. Chang, B. Y. Huang, Y. C. Cheng, J. C. Hsiao, C. K. Li, and Y. R. Wu, “Characteristics of large-scale nanohole arrays for thin-silicon photovoltaics,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.n/a (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaidi, S. H.

K. Sopian, N. Asim, N. Amin, and S. H. Zaidi, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration,” Eur. J. Sci. Res.24, 358–364 (2008).

Zankovych, S.

C. M. Sotomayor Torres, S. Zankovych, J. Seekamp, A. P. Kam, C. Clavijo Cedeño, T. Hoffmann, J. Ahopelto, F. Reuther, K. Pfeiffer, G. Bleidiessel, G. Gruetzner, M. V. Maximov, and B. Heidari, “Nanoimprint lithography: An alternative nanofabrication approach,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C23(1-2), 23–31 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

F. Wang, H. Yu, J. Li, S. Wong, X. W. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Design guideline of high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cell with nanohole array textured surface,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 084306 (2011).
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D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. Res.

N. A. Yahaya, N. Yamada, and T. Nakayama, “Light trapping potential of hexagonal array silicon nanohole structure for solar cell application,” Adv. Mater. Res.512–515, 90–96 (2012).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Basu Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, and P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(5), 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of size-tunable, periodic Si nanohole arrays by plasma modified nanosphere lithography and anisotropic wet etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci.263, 430–435 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. Boukai, P. Haney, A. Katzenmeyer, G. M. Gallatin, A. A. Talin, and P. Yang, “Efficiency enhancement of copper contaminated radial p–n junction solar cells,” Chem. Phys. Lett.501(4-6), 153–158 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Sci. Res.

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J. Am. Chem. Soc.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the c-Si NH arrays: (a) top view and (b) side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra for the optimized c-Si NH array (P = 600 nm, ff = 0.25, h = 500 nm) with a Ag back reflector compared to a nonpatterned c-Si with Ag back reflector, and the Yablonovitch limit. The incident angle is normal to the surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the fabricated (a) square-lattice and (b) hexagonal NH arrays on c-Si.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the (a) measured and (b) simulated absorption spectra of a whole stack.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(left) Three possible ITO layer configurations, (middle) calculated absorption in each layer of the stack, and (right) the total absorption and reflection percentages in each layer of the stack; (a) empty NH, (b) coated NH, (c) filled NH, and (d) NH without ITO. Optimized parameters for the square-lattice c-Si NH arrays are used for every configuration.

Equations (2)

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α( λ )= ω 2 V Im[ ε( ω ) ] | E( t ) | 2 dV,
J sc =e 300 1100 α( λ )S( λ ) dλ,

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