Abstract

In this paper, we present a design of a refractive index sensor based on grating-assisted light coupling between a strip waveguide and a slot waveguide. The slot waveguide serves as the sensing waveguide while the strip waveguide is used for light launching and detection. The wavelength at which the light is coupled from the strip waveguide to the slot waveguide serves as a measure of the refractive index of the external medium. The sensitivity of the sensor is ~1.46 × 103 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and can be almost doubled by isolating the strip waveguide from the external medium. The effects of the slot-waveguide parameters on the sensitivity have also been investigated. In particular, it is found that the sensor can achieve extraordinarily high sensitivity (on the order of 105 nm/RIU) when the group indices of two waveguides are close. The temperature dependence of the sensor is also investigated and a sensor with very low temperature dependence can be achieved with a polymer isolation layer.

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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

C. A. Barrios, “Optical slot-waveguidde based biochemical sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of miniaturized silicon wire and slot waveguide polarization splitterbased on a resonant tunneling,” Opt. Express17(21), 19225–19233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett.29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3399–3405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. M. Senior and S. D. Cusworth, “Devices for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.136, 183–202 (1989).

1987 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Directional coupler made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part II: Garting-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(2), 268–273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Bennion, I.

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Chu, S.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cottier, K.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cusworth, S. D.

J. M. Senior and S. D. Cusworth, “Devices for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.136, 183–202 (1989).

Dai, D.

Davis, F.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dell’olio, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dou, J.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Fan, X. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

González-Pedro, V.

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

Higson, S. P. J.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jugessur, A. S.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kee, J. S.

Kim, C. B.

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-J.

Kim, G.

Kim, G.-H.

Kim, K.-J.

King, O.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, M. A.

Koren, U.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kunz, R. E.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.-K.

Lee, J.-M.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Lo, G. Q.

Maquieira, A.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Directional coupler made of nonidentical asymmetric slabs. Part II: Garting-assisted couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(2), 268–273 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, G. Z.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. K.

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, V.

Raybon, G.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sánchez, B.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senior, J. M.

J. M. Senior and S. D. Cusworth, “Devices for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.136, 183–202 (1989).

Shi, W.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Song, J. F.

Su, C. B.

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. Z.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatam, R. P.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Topliss, S. M.

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

Ünlü, M. S.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voirin, G.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

White, I. M.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiki, M.

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yagnyukova, M.

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yalçin, A.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yiying, J. Q.

Young, M. G.

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, Z.

Zhang, L.

Zhu, H. Y.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. L. Buhl, R. C. Alferness, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, C. A. Burrus, and G. Raybon, “Grating assisted vertical coupler/filter for extended tuning range,” Electron. Lett.29(1), 81–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, S. Jiang, W. Shi, and D. Huang, “High sensitivity of dual resonant peaks of long-period fibre grating to surrounding refractive index changes,” Electron. Lett.35(18), 1580–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J.1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Z. Masanovic, V. M. N. Passaro, and G. T. Reed, “Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(10), 1395–1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1461–1463 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol.15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. (1)

J. M. Senior and S. D. Cusworth, “Devices for wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.136, 183–202 (1989).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. S. Jugessur, M. Yagnyukova, J. Dou, and J. S. Aitchison, “Bragg-grating air-slot optical waveguide for label-free sensing,” Proc. SPIE8231, 82310N (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

K. Cottier, M. Wiki, G. Voirin, H. Gao, and R. E. Kunz, “Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.91(1-3), 241–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Topliss, S. W. James, F. Davis, S. P. J. Higson, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long period grating based selective vapour sensing of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.143(2), 629–634 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

C. A. Barrios, “Optical slot-waveguidde based biochemical sensors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)9(6), 4751–4765 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel)9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Kogelnik, “Theory of optical waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer, 1990).

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, “Efficient thermal tuning for second-order silicon nitride microring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photonics in Switching (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Francisco, 2007), pp. 149–150.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram and (b) cross section of the proposed sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric field (Ex) distributions for the (a) strip waveguide and (b) slot waveguide in a sensor with g = 200nm, Ws = 450nm, W = 1μm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross section of the sensor with an isolation cladding layer on the strip waveguide. (b) Electric field (Ex) distribution for the strip waveguide in a sensor with g = 200nm, Ws = 450nm, W = 1μm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of (a) the sensitivity difference ΔS, the group index difference ΔNg and (b) the sensitivity as a function of slot waveguide width Ws. The parameters are g = 200nm, W = 1μm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of (a) the sensitivity difference ΔS, the group index difference ΔNg and (b) the sensitivity as a function of slot waveguide gap g. The parameters are Ws = 450nm, W = 1μm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of (a) the sensitivity difference ΔS, the group index difference ΔNg and (b) the sensitivity as a function of slab height t. The parameters are Ws = 450nm, g = 200nm, s = 1μm, and W = 1μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Variation of the grating period as a function of wavelength and (b) dependence of the coupling coefficient and required grating length for achieving 100% coupling on the grating etch depth for three different values of separation distance s. The parameters are g = 200nm, W = 1μm, Ws = 450nm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Transmissions spectra at the output of the stripe waveguide for sensors without and with SiO2 isolation at different values of external refractive index nex. (b) Variation of the resonance wavelengths as a function of external refractive index nex. The parameters are g = 200nm, W = 1μm, Ws = 450nm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of (a) the group index difference (ΔNg) and (b) the sensitivity as a function of strip waveguide width W. The parameters are Ws = 650nm, g = 200nm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Variation of the grating period as a function of the wavelength. (b) Transmission spectra at the output of the stripe waveguide for sensors with SiO2 isolation at different values of external refractive index nex. (c) Variations of the dual resonance wavelengths as a function of external refractive index nex. The parameters are Ws = 650nm, g = 200nm, W = 585nm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature dependences of the resonance wavelength at different values of strip waveguide width W. The parameters are Ws = 450nm, g = 200nm, s = 1μm, and t = 0nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculation of the sensitivity for the sensor shown in Fig. 1(b).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculation of the sensitivity for the sensor shown in Fig. 3(a).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ 0 =( N eff strip N eff slot )Λ=Δ N eff Λ,
T(λ)=1 κ 2 κ 2 + δ 2 4 sin 2 κ 2 + δ 2 4 L,
δ= 2π λ Δ N eff 2π Λ .
κ= 2( n Si 3 N 4 2 n ex 2 ) λc μ 0 A e strip e slot * dA ,
d λ 0 d n ex = λ 0 ( N g strip N g slot ) ( N eff strip n ex N eff slot n ex )= λ 0 ΔS Δ N g ,
Δ N g = N g strip N g slot ,
ΔS= S strip S slot = N eff strip n ex N eff slot n ex .
d λ 0 dT = λ 0 Δ N g ( Δ N eff n SiO 2 C SiO 2 + Δ N eff n ex C ex + Δ N eff n Si 3 N 4 C Si 3 N 4 + Δ N eff n iso C iso ),

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