Abstract

We report a remarkable improvement of photoluminescence from ZnO-core/a-SiNx:H-shell nanorod arrays by modulating the bandgap of a-SiNx:H shell. The a-SiNx:H shell with a large bandgap can significantly enhance UV emission by more than 8 times compared with the uncoated ZnO nanorods. Moreover, it is found that the deep-level defect emission can be almost completely suppressed for all the core–shell nanostructures, which is independent of the bandgaps of a-SiNx:H shells. Combining with the analysis of infrared absorption spectrum and luminescence characteristics of NH3-plasma treated ZnO nanorods, the improved photoluminescence is attributed to the decrease of nonradiative recombination probability and the reduction of surface band bending of ZnO cores due to the H and N passivation and the screening effect from the a-SiNx:H shells. Our findings open up new possibilities for fabricating stable and efficient UV-only emitting devices.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. Giorgis, C. F. Pirri, and E. Tresso, “Structural properties of a-Si1−xNx:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition by SiH4 + NH3 + H2 gas mixtures,” Thin Solid Films307(1–2), 298–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, M.

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bahadur, D.

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bello, I.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-P.

C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. J.

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, S. W.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, M.

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

F. Giorgis, C. F. Pirri, and E. Tresso, “Structural properties of a-Si1−xNx:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition by SiH4 + NH3 + H2 gas mixtures,” Thin Solid Films307(1–2), 298–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W. H.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, J.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haneda, H.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hark, S.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J. H.

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, R.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishigaki, T.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. K.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jokela, S. J.

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khedoe, R.

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A. F.

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovác, J.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kutsay, O.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-T.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. A.

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. Y.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K. W.

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. Z.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. X.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luan, C.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCluskey, M. D.

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Misra, D. S.

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T.-W.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, N.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okada, N.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panigrahy, B.

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pirri, C. F.

F. Giorgis, C. F. Pirri, and E. Tresso, “Structural properties of a-Si1−xNx:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition by SiH4 + NH3 + H2 gas mixtures,” Thin Solid Films307(1–2), 298–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richters, J.-P.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruckmann, I.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, S.

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaguchi, I.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, T.

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. D.

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

To, C. H.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tresso, E.

F. Giorgis, C. F. Pirri, and E. Tresso, “Structural properties of a-Si1−xNx:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition by SiH4 + NH3 + H2 gas mixtures,” Thin Solid Films307(1–2), 298–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, T.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wischmeier, L.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, G. Z.

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S. G.

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, M.

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zapien, J. A.

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. T.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

B. Panigrahy, M. Aslam, D. S. Misra, M. Ghosh, and D. Bahadur, “Defect-Related Emissions and Magnetization Properties of ZnO Nanorods,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1161–1165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. K. Jha, C. Luan, C. H. To, O. Kutsay, J. Kováč, J. A. Zapien, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “ZnO-nanorod-array/p-GaN high-performance ultra-violet light emitting devices prepared by simple solution synthesis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Liu, R. Chen, G. Z. Xing, T. Wu, and H. D. Sun, “Photoluminescence characteristics of high quality ZnO nanowires and its enhancement by polymer covering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(2), 023111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, L. Wischmeier, I. Rűckmann, and J. Gutowski, “Influence of polymer coating on the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, C. Y. Liu, Y. X. Liu, and Y. C. Liu, “Effect of oxygen-related surface adsorption on the efficiency and stability of ZnO nanorod array ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Yao, L. Feng, C. Cheng, M. M. T. Loy, and N. Wang, “Tailoring the luminescence emission of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal post-treatment in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 223105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ohashi, T. Ishigaki, N. Okada, T. Sekiguchi, I. Sakaguchi, and H. Haneda, “Effect of hydrogen doping on ultraviolet emission spectra of various types of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(16), 2869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Huang, S. G. Xu, W. H. Guo, L. Wang, J. Song, T.-W. Ng, J. Huang, S.-T. Lee, S. W. Du, and N. Wang, “Nitrogen deep accepters in ZnO nanowires induced by ammonia plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(14), 143112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-C. Lin, H.-P. Chen, and S.-Y. Chen, “Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of arrayed p-type ZnO nanorods grown on ZnO film/Si wafer in aqueous solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.404(1–3), 30–34 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. McCluskey and S. J. Jokela, “Defects in ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.106(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

Q. Yang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing light emission of ZnO microwire-based diodes by piezo-phototronic effect,” Nano Lett.11(9), 4012–4017 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, Microscopic Origin, and Mode Structure of Luminescence and Lasing from Single ZnO Nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shi, Y. Xu, S. Hark, Y. Liu, S. Wang, L. Peng, K. Wong, and Q. Li, “Optical and electrical performance of SnO2 capped ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.7(12), 3559–3563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, M. J. Chen, G. R. Lin, and J. H. He, “ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: growth, structural characterization, and luminescent properties,” Nanotechnology20(18), 185605 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Richters, T. Voss, D. S. Kim, R. Scholz, and M. Zacharias, “Enhanced surface-excitonic emission in ZnO/Al2O3 core-shell nanowires,” Nanotechnology19(30), 305202 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Chu, G. Wang, W. Zhou, Y. Lin, L. Chernyak, J. Zhao, J. Kong, L. Li, J. Ren, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped waveguide lasing from ZnO nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(8), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. Giorgis, C. F. Pirri, and E. Tresso, “Structural properties of a-Si1−xNx:H films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition by SiH4 + NH3 + H2 gas mixtures,” Thin Solid Films307(1–2), 298–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors (Springer, 1974).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of aligned ZnO-core/a-SiNx:H-shell nanorods fabricated by hydrothermal growth followed by an a-SiNx:H deposition duration of 4 min at 250 °C. (b) TEM image of an individual ZnO-core/a-SiNx:H-shell nanorod. (c) The EDS elemental mappings for Zn, O and Si. (d) The corresponding HRTEM image taken at the interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The PL spectra obtained from the ZnO nanorods with and without a-SiNx:H shells plotted in a log scale: as-synthesized nanorods (a), nanorods coated with different bandgaps of a-SiNx:H shells (b) 3.6 eV, (c) 2.9 eV, and (d) 2.4 eV. Insets show the tauc plots of the corresponding a-SiNx:H shells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTIR spectra of the a-SiNx:H films with different bandgaps, respectively. The inset presents the N and H concentration as a function of the bandgaps of a-SiNx:H films, which were estimated according to the number of N-H, Si-H as well as Si-N bonds. The number of bonds is determined by integrating the different stretching absorption band using the equation A∫(a(ω)/ω)dω, where a(ω) and ω are the absorption coefficient and the wave number, respectively. A is taken as equal to 6.3 × 1018, 9.2 × 1019, and 2.8 × 1020 cm−2 for the Si-N, Si-H, and N-H stretching bands, respectively [17].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The PL spectra of ZnO nanorods coated by a large bandgap (3.6 eV) of a-SiNx:H shell after annealing at 400 °C for 30 min in a N2 atmosphere. Inset shows the PL spectra of the NH3-plasma ZnO nanorods before and after annealing at 400 °C for 30 min in a N2 atmosphere, respectively.

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