Abstract

We report a plasmonic interferometric biosensor based on a simple slit-groove metallic nanostructure that monitors the phase changes of surface plasmon polaritons resulting from biomolecular adsorptions. The proposed sensing scheme integrates the strengths of miniaturized plasmonic architectures with sensitive optical interferometry techniques. Sensing peak linewidths as narrow as 7 nm and refractive index resolutions of 1 × 10−5 RIU were experimentally measured from a miniaturized sensing area of 10 × 30 µm2 using a collinear transmission setup and a low-cost compact spectrometer. A high-density array of such interferometric sensors was also fabricated to demonstrate its potential for real-time multiplexed sensing using a CCD camera for intensity interrogation. A self-referencing method was introduced to increase the sensitivity and reduce sensor noise for multiplexing measurements. The enhanced sensing performance, small sensor footprint, and simple instrumentation and optical alignment suggest promise to integrate this platform into low-cost label-free biosensing devices with high multiplexing capabilities.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(25), 251106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. Sjölander and C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem.63(20), 2338–2345 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(18), 2682–2691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett.12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Yavas and C. Kocabas, “Plasmon interferometers for high-throughput sensing,” Opt. Lett.37(16), 3396–3398 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (11)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Non-spectroscopic refractometric nanosensor based on a tilted slit-groove plasmonic interferometer,” Opt. Express19(21), 20691–20703 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun2, 525 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cattoni, P. Ghenuche, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, D. Decanini, J. Chen, J. L. Pelouard, and S. Collin, “λ³/1000 Plasmonic Nanocavities for Biosensing Fabricated by Soft UV Nanoimprint Lithography,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3557–3563 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Lindquist, T. W. Johnson, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Monolithic integration of continuously tunable plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3526–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. J. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Vertical plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensitive optical sensing,” Opt. Express17(23), 20747–20755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Zhao, and Q. Gong, “Refractive index sensor based on surface-plasmon interference,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 392–394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Dahlin, S. Chen, M. P. Jonsson, L. Gunnarsson, M. Käll, and F. Höök, “High-resolution microspectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures for miniaturized biosensing,” Anal. Chem.81(16), 6572–6580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem.81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, and S. H. Oh, “Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation,” Lab Chip9(3), 382–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem.79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Campbell and G. Kim, “SPR microscopy and its applications to high-throughput analyses of biomolecular binding events and their kinetics,” Biomaterials28(15), 2380–2392 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett.32(10), 1235–1237 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett.31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(25), 251106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(2), 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Sjölander and C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem.63(20), 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshinmanesh, F.

J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun2, 525 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguié, B.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

Bao, K.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. J. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Vertical plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensitive optical sensing,” Opt. Express17(23), 20747–20755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baudrion, A. L.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Transmission properties of a single metallic slit: From the subwavelength regime to the geometrical-optics limit,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.69(2), 026601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem.79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

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C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
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P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
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J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
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Johnson, T. W.

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
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A. B. Dahlin, S. Chen, M. P. Jonsson, L. Gunnarsson, M. Käll, and F. Höök, “High-resolution microspectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures for miniaturized biosensing,” Anal. Chem.81(16), 6572–6580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
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A. B. Dahlin, S. Chen, M. P. Jonsson, L. Gunnarsson, M. Käll, and F. Höök, “High-resolution microspectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures for miniaturized biosensing,” Anal. Chem.81(16), 6572–6580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. T. Campbell and G. Kim, “SPR microscopy and its applications to high-throughput analyses of biomolecular binding events and their kinetics,” Biomaterials28(15), 2380–2392 (2007).
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Krenn, J. R.

M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem.79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 263902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem.81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, and S. H. Oh, “Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation,” Lab Chip9(3), 382–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lindquist, N. C.

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, T. W. Johnson, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Monolithic integration of continuously tunable plasmonic nanostructures,” Nano Lett.11(9), 3526–3530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Lindquist, A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, and S. H. Oh, “Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation,” Lab Chip9(3), 382–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem.81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. S. Q.

J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun2, 525 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
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L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
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J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(25), 251106 (2005).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett.12(2), 602–609 (2012).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(18), 2682–2691 (2012).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
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S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
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H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem.81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
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N. C. Lindquist, A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, and S. H. Oh, “Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation,” Lab Chip9(3), 382–387 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
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J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(25), 251106 (2005).
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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
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J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett.12(2), 602–609 (2012).
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S. Sjölander and C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem.63(20), 2338–2345 (1991).
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M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(18), 2682–2691 (2012).
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M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Temnov, V. V.

Tetz, K. A.

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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S. Sjölander and C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem.63(20), 2338–2345 (1991).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett.11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. J. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. U. Gonzalez, J. C. Weeber, A. L. Baudrion, A. Dereux, A. L. Stepanov, J. R. Krenn, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Design, near-field characterization, and modeling of 45° surface-plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittenberg, N. J.

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woggon, U.

Wu, S.-H.

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

Xin, Z.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. C.

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-Y.

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, A. A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavas, O.

Yee, S. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, Q. Wang, L. Zhu, and F. J. Bartoli, “Surface plasmon waves generated by nanogrooves through spectral interference,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085443 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (3)

K.-L. Lee, P.-W. Chen, S.-H. Wu, J.-B. Huang, S.-Y. Yang, and P.-K. Wei, “Enhancing surface plasmon detection using template-stripped gold nanoslit arrays on plastic films,” ACS Nano6(4), 2931–2939 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, S. H. Lee, N. J. Wittenberg, T. W. Johnson, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, D. J. Norris, and S. H. Oh, “Template-stripped smooth Ag nanohole arrays with silica shells for surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” ACS Nano5(8), 6244–6253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (4)

S. Sjölander and C. Urbaniczky, “Integrated fluid handling system for biomolecular interaction analysis,” Anal. Chem.63(20), 2338–2345 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Dahlin, S. Chen, M. P. Jonsson, L. Gunnarsson, M. Käll, and F. Höök, “High-resolution microspectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures for miniaturized biosensing,” Anal. Chem.81(16), 6572–6580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. S. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem.79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem.81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Sanchez-Gil and A. A. Maradudin, “Surface-plasmon polariton scattering from a finite array of nanogrooves/ridges: Efficient mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(25), 251106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

C. T. Campbell and G. Kim, “SPR microscopy and its applications to high-throughput analyses of biomolecular binding events and their kinetics,” Biomaterials28(15), 2380–2392 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (3)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. Escobedo, S. Vincent, A. I. K. Choudhury, J. Campbell, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and R. Gordon, “Integrated nanohole array surface plasmon resonance sensing device using a dual-wavelength source,” J. Micromech. Microeng.21(11), 115001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

G. Spoto and M. Minunni, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging: what next?” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3(18), 2682–2691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

N. C. Lindquist, A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, and S. H. Oh, “Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation,” Lab Chip9(3), 382–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the proposed plasmonic interferometer. (b) An SEM image of a fabricated groove-slit-groove nanostructure with L = 5.1 µm. (c) Side view of the proposed interferometer structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental interference patterns for slit-groove plasmonic interferometers in an air environment with L = 5.1 and 9.0 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured interference patterns of nanoplasmonic interferometers for water and 3, 6, and 9% glycerol-water solutions. Black curves imposed on the raw data are guides to the eye. The directions of the arrows indicate the red-shifts of the interference patterns. (b) The monitored peak positions for two interferometers as a function of time. The response of the interferometer with L = 5.1 µm was vertically displaced by 2 nm for clarity. The upper inset indicates the sensor noise level and the lower inset shows the spectral positions of the interference peak versus liquid refractive index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real-time sensor response upon BSA adsorption to the sensor surface and subsequent specific protein binding between BSA and anti-BSA. The arrows indicate the injections of analytes and buffer solutions. The upper inset shows a schematic of anti-BSA binding to BSA immobilized on the sensor surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A bright-field microscope image of the fabricated plasmonic interferometer array. Scale bar: 10 µm. The interferometers are fabricated with two different L: 5.1 (the first and third column) and 5.2 µm (the second and fourth column) (b) An SEM image of the 4 × 3 microarray. Scale bar: 10 µm. (c) A CCD image of one of the interferometers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission spectra of interferometers with two different values of L: 5.1 and 5.2 µm. The yellow regions indicate the spectral range of the filtered white light source. As the dielectric refractive index increases, the transmitted intensity can either decrease (L = 5.1 µm) or increase (L = 5.2 µm). (b) The blue and green dots shown in the inset indicate the real-time measurements of the normalized transmitted intensities from two interferometers. The black dots are the experimental results obtained after using a self-referencing method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Sensing Performances for Interferometers with Two different values of L.a

Equations (4)

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I I 0 =1+ E spp 2 E free 2 +2 E spp E free cos( 4πL λ n spp + φ 0 ).
S=| Δλ Δn | λ ( n spp n ) 3 / ( n sp λ d n spp dλ ) .
δλ= P 2 λ 2 / 4L( n spp λ d n spp dλ ) .
FOM= S δλ = 4L λ ( n spp n ) 3 .

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