Abstract

Quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands are introduced to extract two optical modes in organic light-emitting diodes. The nano-scaled and size-tunable WO3 islands were fabricated by use of wet-etching with self-aggregated Ag mask. The improvement of light extraction efficiency originates to the recovery of light losses which are surface plasmon mode and waveguide mode. As a result, external quantum efficiency and power efficiency were increased. No changes in emission spectrum and CIE color coordinates with WO3 nanoislands at various observation angles are desirable if this device is to be utilized in optical system. Furthermore, cost-effective fabrication makes it possible to adopt this system in large area fabrication.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim and K. C. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 377–381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Spatial fourier-transform analysis of the morphology of bulk heterojunction materials used in “plastic” solar cells,” Adv. Mater.19(10), 1387–1390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Sieradzki, K. Bailey, and T. L. Alford, “Agglomeration and percolation conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(21), 3401–3403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

1998 (1)

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

S. K. Sharma and J. Spitz, “Hillock formation hole growth and agglomeration in thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films65(3), 339–350 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aichholz, M.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alford, T. L.

K. Sieradzki, K. Bailey, and T. L. Alford, “Agglomeration and percolation conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(21), 3401–3403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, R.

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, K.

K. Sieradzki, K. Bailey, and T. L. Alford, “Agglomeration and percolation conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(21), 3401–3403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

Boo, S. Y.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bülow, T.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. S.

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. C.

Cich, M.

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

Do, Y. R.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, H.

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, S. J.

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamwi, S.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haplepete, S.

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

W. Ma, C. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Spatial fourier-transform analysis of the morphology of bulk heterojunction materials used in “plastic” solar cells,” Adv. Mater.19(10), 1387–1390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helms, C. R.

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

Jeon, S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim and K. C. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 377–381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kramet, S.

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

Krug, H.

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

Lee, E.-S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-M.

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M. S.

Liu, Y.-F.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, C. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Spatial fourier-transform analysis of the morphology of bulk heterojunction materials used in “plastic” solar cells,” Adv. Mater.19(10), 1387–1390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsushige, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munro, B.

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. O.

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedl, T.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S. K.

S. K. Sharma and J. Spitz, “Hillock formation hole growth and agglomeration in thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films65(3), 339–350 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sieradzki, K.

K. Sieradzki, K. Bailey, and T. L. Alford, “Agglomeration and percolation conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(21), 3401–3403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonen, J.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-F.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spitz, J.

S. K. Sharma and J. Spitz, “Hillock formation hole growth and agglomeration in thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films65(3), 339–350 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, X.

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

Yahiro, M.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Spatial fourier-transform analysis of the morphology of bulk heterojunction materials used in “plastic” solar cells,” Adv. Mater.19(10), 1387–1390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Youn, J. R.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. K.

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zapp, P.

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

Zi, J.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Polarization conversion in surface-plasmon-coupled emission from organic light-emitting diodes using spontaneously formed buckles,” Adv. Mater.23(8), 1003–1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ma, C. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Spatial fourier-transform analysis of the morphology of bulk heterojunction materials used in “plastic” solar cells,” Adv. Mater.19(10), 1387–1390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, Y. Shen, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, X. Tang, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Tailored highly transparent composite hole-injection layer consisting of Pedot:PSS and SiO2 nanoparticles for efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater.23(6), 740–745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A:Mater (1)

R. Armitage, M. Cich, M. Rubin, and E. R. Weber, “A method to pattern Pd over-layers on GdMg films and its application to increase the transmittance of metal hydride optical switches,” Appl. Phys. A:Mater71(6), 647–650 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sieradzki, K. Bailey, and T. L. Alford, “Agglomeration and percolation conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(21), 3401–3403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, Y. H. Song, H. K. Yu, and J.-L. Lee, “Effects of Ni cladding layers on suppression of Ag agglomeration in Ag based ohmic contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 062108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
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K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
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Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Fang, S. Haplepete, W. Chen, C. R. Helms, and H. Edwards, “Analyzing atomic force microscopy images using spectral methods,” J. Appl. Phys.82(12), 5891–5898 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Y. Kim and K. C. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 377–381 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. (1)

B. Munro, S. Kramet, P. Zapp, and H. Krug, “Characterization of electrochromic WO3-layers prepared by sol-gel nanotechnology,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn.13, 673–678 (1998).

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Electron. (3)

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, and H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron.12(11), 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, S. Y. Boo, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Controlling bucking structure by UV/ozone treatment for light extraction from organic light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron.12(7), 1177–1183 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. K. Sharma and J. Spitz, “Hillock formation hole growth and agglomeration in thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films65(3), 339–350 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross section of devices (left) without and (right) with quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands considered in this work.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication procedures of WO3 nanoislands: (a) Depostion of WO3, Ag on ITO glass, (b) thermally annealing process to achieve self-aggregated Ag, (c) WO3 wet-etching with self-aggregated Ag mask.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the (a) Ag mask: self-aggregated Ag on 30 nm WO3 after thermal annealing process (b) quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands after wet-etching. Inset figure is power spectrum as function of periodicity instead of wavenumber. The power spectrum was calculated using the SEM image; a 400 nm peak periodicity was achieved. (c) Calculated isotropic grating period as function of emission wavelength to extract waveguide mode and surface plasmon mode. Horizontal line represents a peak periodicity of 400 nm, which is achieved by the power spectrum in this experiment. (d) Normalized electric field profiles of TE0 and, TM0 modes in OLEDs at 530 nm, which is the Alq3 emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of devices in this experiment (b) Current density (J)-voltage (V), (c) The current efficiency versus current density, and (d) (solid line) the EQE and (dotted line) the power efficiency versus luminance characteristics in this experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured EL spectra at 20 mA/cm2 of the fabricated OLED (solid line) without and (dotted line) with quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands (b) Enhancement ratio of EL spectra with WO3 nanoislands as function of wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

I-V characteristics of the hole-only with ITO/hole injection layer/NPB (150 nm)/ Al (100 nm) [0 nm WO3 (circle), 30 nm WO3 film (square), 30 nm WO3 nanoislands (triangle)]

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measured radiant intensity profiles at various observation angles (a) without and (b) with WO3 nanoislands (c) Angular dependency of light intensity for devices (black line) without and (red line) with WO3 nanoislands while azimuthal angle is fixed. Radiation profile of a Lambertian emission (dotted line) for each device is also represented. (d) CIE color coordinate change for the emission angle of devices (solid line) without and (dotted line) with WO3 nanoislands.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PS( f x , f y )= 1 L 2 | 0 L 0 L exp(i2πx f x )exp(i2πy f y )I(x,y)dxdy |
PS(f)= 1 2π 0 2π PS(f,θ)d θ
| k guide |( cos ϕ guide sin ϕ guide )±m G=| k inplane |( cos ϕ inplane sin ϕ inplane )
k inplane = k air sinθ
G= 2π a
| k guide |±m 2π a =0

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