Abstract

We introduce for the first time the concept of an information “container” before a standard optical encrypting procedure. The “container” selected is a QR code which offers the main advantage of being tolerant to pollutant speckle noise. Besides, the QR code can be read by smartphones, a massively used device. Additionally, QR code includes another secure step to the encrypting benefits the optical methods provide. The QR is generated by means of worldwide free available software. The concept development probes that speckle noise polluting the outcomes of normal optical encrypting procedures can be avoided, then making more attractive the adoption of these techniques. Actual smartphone collected results are shown to validate our proposal.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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2012 (4)

2011 (2)

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, “Flexible optical encryption with multiple users and multiple security levels,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 735–739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, “Optical encryption using a joint transform correlator architecture,” Opt. Eng.39(8), 2031–2035 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett.25(12), 887–889 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

Alfalou, A.

Arcos, S.

Barrera, J. F.

Bolognini, N.

Brosseau, C.

Carnicer, A.

Cheng, L. M.

Dong, A.

Fu, Q. K.

Henao, R.

Ide, M.

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Juvells, I.

Kuroda, K.

Lee, W. H.

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, “A novel user authentication scheme based on QR-Code,” J. Netw.5, 937–941 (2010).

Liao, K. C.

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, “A novel user authentication scheme based on QR-Code,” J. Netw.5, 937–941 (2010).

Lin, C.

C. Lin, X. Shen, R. Tang, and X. Zou, “Multiple images encryption based on Fourier transform hologram,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Matoba, O.

Montes-Usategui, M.

Mosso, F.

Naughton, T. J.

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, “Flexible optical encryption with multiple users and multiple security levels,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 735–739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishchal, N. K.

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, “Flexible optical encryption with multiple users and multiple security levels,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 735–739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, “Optical encryption using a joint transform correlator architecture,” Opt. Eng.39(8), 2031–2035 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okada-Shudo, Y.

Peng, X.

Refregier, P.

Ríos, C.

Rueda, E.

Shen, X.

C. Lin, X. Shen, R. Tang, and X. Zou, “Multiple images encryption based on Fourier transform hologram,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

Tan, X.

Tang, R.

C. Lin, X. Shen, R. Tang, and X. Zou, “Multiple images encryption based on Fourier transform hologram,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldi, M.

Torroba, R.

Unnikrishnan, G.

Vargas, C.

Wang, H.

Wei, H.

Yu, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, W.

Zou, X.

C. Lin, X. Shen, R. Tang, and X. Zou, “Multiple images encryption based on Fourier transform hologram,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Netw. (1)

K. C. Liao and W. H. Lee, “A novel user authentication scheme based on QR-Code,” J. Netw.5, 937–941 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

N. K. Nishchal and T. J. Naughton, “Flexible optical encryption with multiple users and multiple security levels,” Opt. Commun.284(3), 735–739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, X. Shen, R. Tang, and X. Zou, “Multiple images encryption based on Fourier transform hologram,” Opt. Commun.285(6), 1023–1028 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, “Optical encryption using a joint transform correlator architecture,” Opt. Eng.39(8), 2031–2035 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (9)

G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett.25(12), 887–889 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 767–769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Henao, E. Rueda, J. F. Barrera, and R. Torroba, “Noise-free recovery of optodigital encrypted and multiplexed images,” Opt. Lett.35(3), 333–335 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Barrera, C. Vargas, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Known-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3553–3555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Matoba and B. Javidi, “Optical retrieval of encrypted digital holograms for secure real-time display,” Opt. Lett.27(5), 321–323 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Double random-phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett.29(14), 1584–1586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Situ and J. Zhang, “Multiple-image encryption by wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1306–1308 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carnicer, M. Montes-Usategui, S. Arcos, and I. Juvells, “Vulnerability to chosen-cyphertext attacks of optical encryption schemes based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1644–1646 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Peng, P. Zhang, H. Wei, and B. Yu, “Known-plaintext attack on optical encryption based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1044–1046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

ISO, IEC 18004: 2006, “Information technology - Automatic identification and data capture techniques - QR Code 2005 bar code symbology specification,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland (2006).

S. Dey, “SD-EQR: A new technique to use QR codesTM in cryptography: use of QR CodesTM in data hiding and securing,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Emerging Trends of Computers and Information Technology, Vol 3 of 2012 WINBIS, (Open Learning Society, 2012), pp. 11–21.

E. Ohbuchi, H. Hanaizumi, and L. A. Hock, “Barcode readers using the camera device in mobile phones,” in Proceedings of IEEE 2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds (IEEE, 2004), pp. 260 – 265.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Encrypting and (b) decrypting systems ( f : focal length of the lens L , R 1 and R 2 : random phase masks).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Input object, (b) encrypted object, (c) decrypted object with a wrong key, and (d) recovered object with the original key.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) QR code of the text “GOF CIOp” and (b) the outcome when reading the QR code with a smartphone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Representation of the input message and (b) its respective QR code. (c) Optically encrypted and (d) decrypted QR code.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Reading of the decrypted QR Code revealing the noise-free message and (b) recovering of the message using only optical encryption.

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