Abstract

Blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) are promising candidates for next generation display thanks to their fast response and quasi-isotropic optical properties. By taking these advantages, we propose to introduce the material into fiber-optic applications. As an example, a BPLC based variable optical attenuator (VOA) is demonstrated with a polarization independent design. The device shows normally-off feature when no field is applied. Response time down to submillisecond scale is achieved in switching between two arbitrary attenuation states. The attenuation range is also measured from 1480 to 1550 nm, which cover the whole telecomm S-band and part of the C-band. The overall performances reach the requirements for practical use; while still have room for further improvement. Through this example, the applicability of BPLC in fiber-optic devices is presented, which may impel the development of many other photonic applications from infrared to even microwave regions.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically controlled lens and prism using nanoscale polymer-dispersed and polymer-networked liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE5289, 63–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, T. H. Chiang, C. H. Wu, and H. K. Hsu, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express19(3), 2556–2561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

Chen, Y.

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. H.

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. H.

Chigrinov, V.

Cui, H. Q.

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically controlled lens and prism using nanoscale polymer-dispersed and polymer-networked liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE5289, 63–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, J.

Gauza, S.

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z. B.

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P. J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, T. H. Chiang, C. H. Wu, and H. K. Hsu, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express19(3), 2556–2561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. K.

Huang, Z. D.

Jau, H. C.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

Li, J. N.

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

Lin, T.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

Lindmayer, J.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Maeda, M. W.

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L. H.

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically controlled lens and prism using nanoscale polymer-dispersed and polymer-networked liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE5289, 63–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reznikov, Y.

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seiderman, W. M.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, J. W.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Storti, G. M.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

Wang, C.-T.

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

West, J. L.

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, J. R.

Wu, S. T.

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically controlled lens and prism using nanoscale polymer-dispersed and polymer-networked liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE5289, 63–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

Xianyu, H.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. P.

Zhang, G. Q.

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. G.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, W. Hu, X. K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H. Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J. N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, C.-T. Wang, C.-Y. Hsu, T.-H. Lin, and J.-H. Liu, “Optically tuneable blue phase photonic bandgaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. L. West, G. Q. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, and Y. Reznikov, “Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(3), 031111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. S. Patel and M. W. Maeda, “Tunable polarization diversity liquid-crystal wavelength filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(8), 739–740 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, J. N. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal for polarization-independent variable optical attenuator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(10), 7083–7086 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Rao, Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging Liquid Crystal Displays Based on the Kerr Effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.527(1), 30–42 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

S. Jutamulia, G. M. Storti, W. M. Seiderman, J. Lindmayer, and D. A. Gregory, “Infrared signal processing using a liquid crystal television,” Opt. Eng.30(2), 178–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Wu, Y. H. Lin, Y. Q. Lu, H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, J. R. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal,” Opt. Express12(25), 6382–6389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Wang, Z. D. Huang, J. Feng, X. F. Chen, X. Liang, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal modulator with ultra-wide dynamic range and adjustable driving voltage,” Opt. Express16(17), 13168–13174 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, T. H. Chiang, C. H. Wu, and H. K. Hsu, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical switch using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express19(3), 2556–2561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chen, H. C. Jau, C. T. Wang, C. H. Lee, I. C. Khoo, and T. H. Lin, “Random lasing in blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Express20(21), 23978–23984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, C. T. Wang, C. P. Yu, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization independent Fabry-Perot filter based on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with fast response time,” Opt. Express19(25), 25441–25446 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Proc. SPIE

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically controlled lens and prism using nanoscale polymer-dispersed and polymer-networked liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE5289, 63–73 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Y. Wu, J. Y. Liu, and Y. C. Chen, “Optical attenuator using polarization modulation and a feedback controller,” U.S. patent 5,963,291 (October 5, 1999).

E. E. Bergmann, “Optical attenuator with combined polarization functions,” U.S. patent 5,771,120 (June 23, 1998)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic setup of a BPLC-based VOA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The working principle of the BPLC-based VOA: (a) dark state (voltage-off) and (b) bright state (at saturation voltage).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The voltage dependent attenuation at λ = 1550 nm of both rise and decay processes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral response from 1480 nm to 1550 nm of a BPLC based intensity modulator. Different curves correspond to different attenuations states.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rise and Decay Time at Different Applied Voltages at λ = 1550 nm

Metrics