Abstract

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

R. Schnabel and for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nature Phys.7, 962–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

The Virgo collaboration, “Status of the Virgo project,” Class. Quantum Grav.28, 114002 (2011).

2010 (3)

M. Punturo and for the ET collaboration, “The Einstein Telescope: a third-generation gravitational wave observatory,” Class. Quantum Grav.27, 194002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry and for the LIGO scientific collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav.27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

A. Thüring, R. Schnabel, H. Lück, and K. Danzmann, “Detuned twin signal recycling for ultra-high precision interferometers,” Opt. Lett.32, 985–987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Shaddock, “Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry,” Opt. Lett.32, 3355–3357 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Willke and for the GEO collaboration, “The GEO-HF project,” Class. Quantum Grav.23, S207–S214 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1988 (1)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Affeldt, C.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Thüring, C. Gräf, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with twin-signal-recycling,” Opt. Lett.34, 824–826 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thüring, R. Schnabel, H. Lück, and K. Danzmann, “Detuned twin signal recycling for ultra-high precision interferometers,” Opt. Lett.32, 985–987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Degallaix, J.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delker, T.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freise, A.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fritschel, P.

Gräf, C.

Gray, M. B.

Grote, H.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harms, J.

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry and for the LIGO scientific collaboration, “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Class. Quantum Grav.27, 084006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heinzel, G.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hewitson, M.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hild, S.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Leong, J.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levin, Y.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lück, H.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Thüring, R. Schnabel, H. Lück, and K. Danzmann, “Detuned twin signal recycling for ultra-high precision interferometers,” Opt. Lett.32, 985–987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mason, J. E.

Matsko, A. B.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

Meers, B. J.

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mehmet, M.

Miller, J.

Mizuno, J.

J. Mizuno, Comparison of optical configurations for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors PhD Thesis, (Universität Hannover, 1995).

Mow-Lowry, C.

Mullavey, A. J.

Müller, G.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prijatelj, M.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Punturo, M.

M. Punturo and for the ET collaboration, “The Einstein Telescope: a third-generation gravitational wave observatory,” Class. Quantum Grav.27, 194002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raab, F. J.

Regehr, M. W.

Reitze, D. H.

Schilling, R.

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

R. Schnabel and for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nature Phys.7, 962–965 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Thüring, C. Gräf, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with twin-signal-recycling,” Opt. Lett.34, 824–826 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Thüring, R. Schnabel, H. Lück, and K. Danzmann, “Detuned twin signal recycling for ultra-high precision interferometers,” Opt. Lett.32, 985–987 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harms, Y. Chen, S. Chelkowski, A. Franzen, H. Vahlbruch, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed-input, optical-spring, signal-recycled gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D68, 042001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D. A.

Sigg, D.

Slagmolen, B. J. J.

Smith, J. R.

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Somiya, K.

K. Somiya and for the KAGRA collaboration, “Detector configuration of KAGRA – the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.29, 124007 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Strain, K. A.

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hild, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, H. Lück, J. R. Smith, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector,” Class. Quantum Grav.24, 1513–1523 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Strain, G. Müller, T. Delker, D. H. Reitze, D. B. Tanner, J. E. Mason, P. A. Willems, D. A. Shaddock, M. B. Gray, C. Mow-Lowry, and D. E. McClelland, “Sensing and control in dual-recycling laser interferometer gravitational-wave detectors,” Appl. Opt.42, 1244–1256 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, D. B.

Thorne, K. S.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thüring, A.

Vahlbruch, H.

A. Thüring, C. Gräf, H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with twin-signal-recycling,” Opt. Lett.34, 824–826 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B31, 97–105 (1983).
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Class. Quantum Grav. (7)

A. Freise, G. Heinzel, H. Lück, R. Schilling, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes,” Class. Quantum Grav.21, S1067–S1074 (2004).
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J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

H. Lück, C. Affeldt, J. Degallaix, A. Freise, H. Grote, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, J. Leong, M. Prijatelj, K. A. Strain, B. Willke, H. Wittel, and K. Danzmann, “The upgrade of GEO600,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.228, 012012 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, “Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and/or output optics,” Phys. Rev. D65, 022002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 211102 (2005).
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Other (4)

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A. Thüring, Investigations of coupled and Kerr non-linear optical resonators PhD Thesis, (Leibniz Universität Hannover, 2009).

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, paper in preparation.

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