Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of phase-stable mJ-pulse pairs at programmable inter-pulse delays up to hundreds of nanoseconds. A detailed investigation of potential sources for phase shifts during the parametric amplification of the selected pulses from a Ti:Sapphire frequency comb is presented, both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that within the statistical error of the phase measurement of 10 mrad, there is no dependence of the differential phase shift over the investigated inter-pulse delay range of more than 300 ns. In combination with nonlinear upconversion of the amplified pulses, the presented system will potentially enable short wavelength (<100 nm), multi-transition Ramsey-frequency comb spectroscopy at the kHz-level.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
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  4. M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

2012 (4)

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “A 1.8 mJ, picosecond Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier pump front-end system for high-accuracy XUV-frequency comb spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 781–785 (2012).

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.18, 296–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “Tailored pulse sequences from an 880 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier,” Opt. Lett.37, 208–210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1966 (1)

R. R. Ernst and W. A. Anderson, “Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.37, 93–102 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

N. F. Ramsey, “A molecular beam resonance method with separated oscillating fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695–699 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Allison, T. K.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. A.

R. R. Ernst and W. A. Anderson, “Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.37, 93–102 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Antognini, A.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biraben, F.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

Brault, J. W.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardoso, J. M. R.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. W.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cingöz, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Covita, D. S.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. P.

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

Dax, A.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dickenson, G. D.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

dos Santos, J. M. F.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “A 1.8 mJ, picosecond Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier pump front-end system for high-accuracy XUV-frequency comb spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 781–785 (2012).

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “Tailored pulse sequences from an 880 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier,” Opt. Lett.37, 208–210 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.18, 296–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification.” Opt. Lett.32, 2363–2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ernst, R. R.

R. R. Ernst and W. A. Anderson, “Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.37, 93–102 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, L. M. P.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fortier, T. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gouvea, A. L.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
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Hartl, I.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
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A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, M.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification.” Opt. Lett.32, 2363–2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, D. B.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ina, H.

Indelicato, P.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
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E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
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H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julien, L.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kandula, D. Z.

Khan, J. I.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirch, K.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Kottmann, F.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. W.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matousek, P.

Moll, K. D.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “A 1.8 mJ, picosecond Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier pump front-end system for high-accuracy XUV-frequency comb spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 781–785 (2012).

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “Tailored pulse sequences from an 880 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier,” Opt. Lett.37, 208–210 (2012).
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Mulhauser, F.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, T.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New, G. H. C.

Newbury, N. R.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nez, F.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osvay, K.

Pinkert, T. J.

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, R.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Renault, A.

Rosenband, T.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, I. N.

Ruehl, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salumbides, E. J.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P. O.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H. A.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuhmann, K.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siedschlag, Ch.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, M.

Taqqu, D.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubachs, W.

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, Th.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, A.

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.18, 296–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Kandula, A. Renault, Ch. Gohle, A. L. Wolf, S. Witte, W. Hogervorst, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast double-pulse parametric amplification for precision Ramsey metrology.” Opt. Express16, 7071–7082 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification.” Opt. Lett.32, 2363–2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, A. L.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zinkstok, R. Th.

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification.” Opt. Lett.32, 2363–2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

A. Antognini, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, L. M. P. Fernandes, A. L. Gouvea, T. Graf, T. W. Hänsch, M. Hildebrandt, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, K. Kirch, F. Kottmann, Y. W. Liu, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, T. Nebel, F. Nez, J. M. F. dos Santos, K. Schuhmann, D. Taqqu, J. F. C. A. Veloso, A. Voss, and R. Pohl, “Illuminating the proton radius conundrum: the μHe+ Lamb shift” Can. J. Phys.89, 47–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron.18, 296–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Morgenweg and K. S. E. Eikema, “A 1.8 mJ, picosecond Nd:YVO4 bounce amplifier pump front-end system for high-accuracy XUV-frequency comb spectroscopy,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 781–785 (2012).

Nature (London) (3)

Ch. Gohle, Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)436, 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London)482, 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear refraction in nonlinear optical crystals,” Opt. Mater.15, 237–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. F. Ramsey, “A molecular beam resonance method with separated oscillating fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695–699 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A84, 062512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region,” Phys. Rev. A73, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. Z. Kandula, Ch. Gohle, T. J. Pinkert, W. Ubachs, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Extreme ultraviolet frequency comb metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 63001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 5102–5102 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Salumbides, G. D. Dickenson, T. I. Ivanov, and W. Ubachs, “QED effects in molecules: test on rotational quantum states of H2,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 43005 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. R. Ernst and W. A. Anderson, “Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to magnetic resonance,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.37, 93–102 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

S. Witte, R. Th. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Deep-ultraviolet quantum interference metrology with ultrashort laser pulses.” Science307, 400–403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation,” Science312, 246–248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place.” Science319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. P. Davis, M. C. Abrams, and J. W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, 2001).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup, including a Pockels cell pulse picker (PC), second harmonic generation (SHG) and the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA). A reference fraction of the non-amplified frequency-comb pulses is compared with the amplified pulses via spectral interference in the phase-measurement setup. The programmable inter-pulse delay can be changed in steps of the cavity round-trip time (T0 = 8 ns, n is an integer number).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results for the investigated narrow-band OPCPA system. (a): Resulting changes of the amplified spectra and the nonlinear phase due to variations in pump intensity. (b): Detuning the phase-matching angle from ϕPM,0 = 2.30000° while keeping the pump intensity fixed at Ip = 5.5 GW/cm2. In the right column of the figure the corresponding differential phase contributions from the individual OPCPA passes are shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated B-integral values of the three stage OPCPA for different pump intensities. Shown are the total value (Btot) and the individual contributions from SPM of the signal beam (Bss) and XPM between pump and signal (Bps) and idler and signal beams (Bis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated amplified pulse shapes for different seeding ratios (first pulse : second pulse) of the two pump pulses to obtain equal pulses after the post-amplifier. Each row shows the pulse shapes upon exiting the pre-amplifier (left column) and post-amplifier (right column). In c), the pulse intensity of the first pulse was reduced by 47% between pre-and post-amplifier, which in the experiment is performed by a Pockels cell pulse picker.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplified beam profiles of the first pulse and two second pulses with different time delays of 40 ns and 400 ns, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative horizontal and vertical wavefront tilts between the first and a second pump pulse at 40 ns inter-pulse delay, based on an average of 40 acquisitions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a): Differential phase shift measurements between two amplified FC comb pulses, for two states of alignment of the OPCPA system (Set 1 and Set 2, respectively). During one measurements the inter-pulse delay was changed in steps of 80 ns. (b): Average phase shifts for each inter-pulse delay of these two measurement sets together with their statistical uncertainties.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Differential phase shift of the FC pulses in the OPCPA versus energy ratio of the pump pulse pair. The scaling coefficient of the phase shift based on the linear fit is 0.8 mrad / 1% energy ratio difference.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Phase shift measurements of different spatial subsections of the amplified FC pulses as schematically depicted in the inset. The dashed lines represent the average phase shift per subsection.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ f = Δ ϕ 2 π Δ T .
Δ ϕ s ( L ) = Δ k 2 0 L f ( z ) f ( z ) + γ s 2 d z ,
B tot = B s s + B p s + B i s = 2 π λ s 0 L n 2 ( I s ( z ) + 2 3 I p ( z ) + 2 I i ( z ) ) d z .
G ( t ) = G 0 G 0 ( G 0 1 ) exp [ F in ( t ) / F sat ]
F in ( t ) = t 0 t I in ( t ) d t .

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