Abstract

Stroboscopic scanning white light interferometry (SSWLI) allows precise three dimensional (3D) measurements of oscillating samples. Commercial SSWLI devices feature limited pulsing frequency. To address this issue we built a 400-620 nm wideband 150 mW light source whose 1.6 µm wide interferogram is without side peaks. The source combines a non-phosphor white LED with a cyan LED. We measured a calibration artifact with 10 nm precision and obtained 40 nm precision when measuring the 3D profile of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer membrane operating at 2.72 MHz. This source is compatible with solid state technology.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (6)

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Haeggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

2007 (2)

L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aaltonen, J.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Haeggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Abbadi, I.

Billson, D. R.

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bosseboeuf, A.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butts-Pauly, K.

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-S.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-H.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, W. K.

Colonna de Lega, X.

Danaie, K.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. A. J.

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

Ergun, A. S.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, G.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Franssila, S.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Gilles, J.-P.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grigoras, K.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Haeggstrom, E. O.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hæggström, E.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haeggström, E.

Hæggström, E.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Hanhijärvi, K.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Haeggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Heikkinen, V.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-F.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, D. A.

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kassamakov, I.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Haeggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett.34(10), 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kupnik, M.

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Lin, D.-S.

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-F.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-C.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Minh, H. L.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, X.

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noble, R. A.

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oh, Y. J.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulin, T.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petitgrand, S.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S. L.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Räikkönen, H.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saarela, V.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sainiemi, L.

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

Sang, L. W.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, W.-Y.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. Y.

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wälchli, B.

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wijesoma, S.

Won, E. T.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. H.

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yahiaoui, R.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-C.

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. L.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Z.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. B.

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acoust. Res. Lett. Online (1)

L. A. J. Davis, D. R. Billson, D. A. Hutchins, and R. A. Noble, “Visualizing acoustic displacements of capacitive micromachined transducers using an interferometric microscope,” Acoust. Res. Lett. Online6(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. F. Huang, C. F. Lu, T. Y. Tang, J. J. Huang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free white-light light-emitting diode of weakly carrier-density-dependent spectrum with prestrained growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, S. L. Qi, Y. Z. Zhang, X. L. Yang, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Luminescent properties in the strain adjusted phosphor-free GaN based white light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(26), 261117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-F. Lu, C.-F. Huang, Y.-S. Chen, W.-Y. Shiao, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-C. Lu, and C.-C. Yang, “Phosphor-free monolithic white- light LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1210–1217 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, H. L. Minh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

Y. Huang, X. Zhuang, E. O. Haeggstrom, A. S. Ergun, C.-H. Cheng, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with piston-shaped membranes: fabrication and experimental characterization,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control56(1), 136–145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Wong, M. Kupnik, X. Zhuang, D.-S. Lin, K. Butts-Pauly, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control55(9), 2053–2065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron. (1)

L. Chen, Y. Huang, and K. Fan, “A Dynamic 3-D surface profilometer with nanoscale measurement resolution and MHz bandwidth for MEMS characterization,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron.12(3), 299–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

L. Chen, Y. Huang, X. Nguyen, J. Chen, and C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Lasers Eng.47(2), 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J.-P. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Lasers Eng.36(2), 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Effect of LED spectral shift on vertical resolution in stroboscopic white light interferometry,” Proc. SPIE7003, 70031S (2008).

V. Heikkinen, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, H. Räikkönen, B. Wälchli, T. Paulin, I. Kassamakov, K. Grigoras, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Hybrid light source for scanning white light interferometry-based MEMS quality control,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80822O, 80822O-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

L. Sainiemi, K. Grigoras, I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, J. Aaltonen, J. Fan, V. Saarela, E. Hæggström, and S. Franssila, “Fabrication of thermal microbridge actuators and characterization of their electrical and mechanical responses,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.149(2), 305–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. L. Hartzell, M. G. da Silva, and H. R. Shea, MEMS Reliability (MEMS Reference Shelf) (Springer, 2010), Chap. 6.

D.-S. Wan, C. Farrell, and E. L. Novak, “Variable-wavelength illumination system for interferometry,“ U.S. Patent 7,654,685 B2 (Feb. 2, 2008).

H. Tanaka, Y. Umeda, and O. Takyu, “High-speed LED driver for visible light communications with drawing-out of remaining carrier,” Proc IEEE Radio Wirel Symp, (2011), pp. 295 - 298.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the measurement setup and combiner to mix the output of the LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulser that drives the LEDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric pulse created by the pulser while driving a non-phosphor LED (left) and optical pulses emitted by the cyan LED (center) and non-phosphor white LED (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of non-phosphor white LED pulsed using different frequencies and duty cycles. Light output shifts towards yellow at higher frequency or duty cycle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured 3D profiles of commercial step height and lateral resolution standards. We measure steps with 10 nm vertical precision across areas larger than 1 mm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectrum of the source measured through the measurement system. Right: Light intensity at a single pixel acquired while measuring a gold plated test sample (red dots). Overlayed is the simulated interferogram (blue line). The LEDs were driven with 2.72 MHz frequency and 5% duty cycle. Interferogram FWHM is 1.66 ± 0.04 µm (measured), 1.633 ± 0.009 µm (simulated).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured dynamic profiles show the surface motion of CMUT membranes when driven with a 5 Vpp sine signal at 2.72 MHz (30V DC bias). Expanded SSWLI image of the one element studied by LDV at 225° phase angle. Points indicated by black arrows moved in a similar fashion when the element was examined using LDV (points between the arrows moved too much to be measured using the LDV).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of the developed light source compared to earlier tested sources. These values are extracted from a Gaussian fit to the dataa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(ζ)= 0 g(k,ζ)V(k)dk .
g(k,ζ)=2[ 1+cos(2k(hζ)+ φ 0 ) ].

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