Abstract

Near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference is observed in silicon nanophotonic directional couplers with raw visibilities on-chip at 90.5%. Spectrally-bright 1557-nm two-photon states are generated in a periodically-poled KTiOPO4 waveguide chip, serving as the entangled photon source and pumped with a self-injection locked laser, for the photon statistical measurements. Efficient four-port coupling in the communications C-band and in the high-index-contrast silicon photonics platform is demonstrated, with matching theoretical predictions of the quantum interference visibility. Constituents for the residual quantum visibility imperfection are examined, supported with theoretical analysis of the sequentially-triggered multipair biphoton, towards scalable high-bitrate quantum information processing and communications. The on-chip HOM interference is useful towards scalable high-bitrate quantum information processing and communications.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

A. Veitia, J. Jing, T. Yu, and C. W. Wong, “Mutual preservation of entanglement,” Phys. Lett. A376(44), 2755–2764 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O'Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New J. Phys.14(4), 045003 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, P. Mataloni, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Polarization entangled state measurement on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(20), 200503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dousse, J. Suffczyński, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, J. Bloch, P. Voisin, and P. Senellart, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nature466(7303), 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X. Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. OBrien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, S. Lloyd, and T. C. Ralph, “Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 110501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chatterjee, M. Yu, A. Stein, D. L. Kwong, L. C. Kimerling, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of a hitless bypass switch using nanomechanical perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks,” Opt. Express18(3), 3045–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afifi and R. Dusséaux, “Statistical study of radiation loss from planar optical waveguides: the curvilinear coordinate method and the small perturbation method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(5), 1171–1184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang and T. B. Pittman, “Compensating for beamsplitter asymmetries in quantum interference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(2), 350–353 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

R. Bose, J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, A. D. Williams, and C. W. Wong, “Cryogenic spectroscopy of ultra-low density colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots on chip-scale optical cavities towards single quantum dot near-infrared cavity QED,” Opt. Express17(25), 22474–22483 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhong, F. N. Wong, T. D. Roberts, and P. Battle, “High performance photon-pair source based on a fiber-coupled periodically poled KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Opt. Express17(14), 12019–12030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Sun and C. W. Wong, “Indistinguishability of independent single photons,” Phys. Rev. A79(1), 013824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu and J. H. Eberly, “Sudden death of entanglement,” Science323(5914), 598–601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 346–350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

F. W. Sun, B. H. Liu, C. W. Wong, and G. C. Guo, “Permutation asymmetry inducing entanglement between degrees of freedom in multiphoton states,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, I. Fushman, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Coherent generation of nonclassical light on a chip via photon-induced tunneling and blockade,” Nat. Phys.4(11), 859–863 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, F. W. Sun, and C. W. Wong, “Implementation scheme for quantum controlled phase-flip gate through quantum dot in slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(15), 151108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, J. Gao, X. B. Zou, J. F. McMillan, X. Yang, Y. L. Chen, Z. F. Han, G. C. Guo, and C. W. Wong, “Coupled quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal cavities towards controlled phase gate operations,” New J. Phys.10(12), 123013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

Y. F. Xiao, J. Gao, X. Yang, R. Bose, G. C. Guo, and C. W. Wong, “Nanocrystals in silicon photonic crystal standing-wave cavities as spin-photon phase gates for quantum information processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(15), 151105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics1(3), 165–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bartůšková, M. Dusek, A. Cernoch, J. Soubusta, and J. Fiurásek, “Fiber-optics implementation of an asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloner,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(12), 120505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, “Entanglement generation by Fock-state filtration,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(20), 203602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

N. Kiesel, C. Schmid, U. Weber, R. Ursin, and H. Weinfurter, “Linear optics controlled-phase gate made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(21), 210505 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, A. N. Zhang, X. Q. Zhou, Y. A. Chen, C. Y. Lu, A. Karlsson, and J. W. Pan, “Experimental realization of optimal asymmetric cloning and telecloning via partial teleportation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(3), 030502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(9), 2719–2732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. Wong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-photon coincident-frequency entanglement via extended phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(8), 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(5), 057901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. L. O’Brien, G. J. Pryde, A. G. White, T. C. Ralph, and D. Branning, “Demonstration of an all-optical quantum controlled-NOT gate,” Nature426(6964), 264–267 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Häffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, and C. F. RoosJ. Eschner and R. Blatt, “Realization of the Cirac–Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Nature422, 408-411(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Häffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, and C. F. RoosJ. Eschner and R. Blatt, “Realization of the Cirac–Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate,” Nature422, 408-411(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys.74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Mabuchi and A. C. Doherty, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context,” Science298(5597), 1372–1377 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A57(3), 2134–2145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, “Experimental evaluation of a two-photon wave packet in type-II parametric downconversion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(5), 859–862 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(24), 4337–4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(6), 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Franson, “Two-photon interferometry over large distances,” Phys. Rev. A44(7), 4552–4555 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett.59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.48, 2071–2102 (1969).

Acín, A.

V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(5), 057901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afifi, S.

Albota, M. A.

M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Polarization-independent frequency conversion for quantum optical communication,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(5), 918–924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. Wong, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-photon coincident-frequency entanglement via extended phase matching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(8), 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

A. Reinhard, T. Volz, M. Winger, A. Badolato, K. J. Hennessy, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Strongly correlated photons on a chip,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 93–96 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett, J. Jeffers, A. Gatti, and R. Loudon, “Quantum optics of lossy beam splitters,” Phys. Rev. A57(3), 2134–2145 (1998).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experiment setup for near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in silicon quantum photonic chip. Fiber polarization controllers are used to ensure biphoton splitting via fiber polarization beam splitter, and to equalize the TM polarization coupling onto the silicon chip. The photon statistics are collected with one single photon detector triggering the other to diminish the dark counts and accidentals. QWP: quarter-wave plate; HWP: half-wave plate; LPF: low-pass filter; BPF: band-pass filter; PBS: polarization beam splitter; BS: beam splitter. (b) Optical micrograph of nanofabricated directional coupler in silicon-on-insulator. The side trenches (in white) are intended to mark and locate the device. Inset: zoom-in optical micrograph of the waveguide directional. Both scale bars: 1-um. (c) SEM of silicon inverse taper couplers with top oxide cladding waveguides. Scale bar: 20-um. Inset: end-view of protruded silicon waveguide. Scale bar: 200-nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design map of silicon photonic directional coupler for two-photon interaction, in both transverse electric (TE; left panels) and transverse magnetic (TM; right panels) polarizations. Panel (a): cross-over coupling length (lc) versus directional coupler gap widths (g) and waveguide width (w). Panel (b): splitting ratio versus designed cross-over coupling length lc and g. The device thickness is fixed at 250-nm on a thick (typically 3-um) silicon oxide, and the biphoton state input center wavelength is in the 1550-nm telecommunications band. The discretization in each of the panels is from finite numerical simulations. The white circle points denote the designed and fabricated device choices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Coincidences measured on the optimal directional coupler chosen experimentally with a splitting ratio (SR) less than 1-dB. A triangle fit is used for visibility estimation. A raw visibility of 90.5% is observed without accidental subtraction, and 90.8% with accidentals subtraction. (b) Visibility measured with different pump powers for both chip and fiber beam splitter implementations, for comparison. The visibility is approximately linearly related to the pump power as more probability of multiple biphoton pairs generated in one gate window. The first order theory is plotted as dashed line. The on-chip visibility is slightly lower than off-chip one by about 3%, which could be considered to be induced by the chip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scenario of the timeline for the photon pairs. (a) The delay of two photon pairs is set to τ/2 to maximize the coincidences. (b) When there is only one photon pair in the gate window of D1, there is still possibility that D2 will record a photon event due to gate window time mismatch. (c) When there are two photon pairs within the gate window and separated to two detectors, there is possibility that the latter photon pair will be cut off due to the gate window time mismatch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Coincidences measured on three different directional couplers measured with different splitting ratio imbalances: 6-dB, 3-dB, and less than 1-dB. (b) Visibility versus polarization detuned at one of the input paths.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L c,3dB = (2n1)π 2( v p,sym v p,antisym ) + l eff ,n=1,2,3...
SR= | 1+ e iπ( l eff +l) l couple 1 e iπ( l eff +l) l couple | 2
C max =p(τ,1) 1 2 η 2 = 1 2 α η 2
C min (1)=p(τ,1) 1 2 [1 (1η) 2 ] 2 { 0 1 2 τ d t 1 τ p( 1 2 τt,1) 1 2 + 1 2 τ τ dt 1 τ p(t 1 2 τ,1) 1 2 } = 1 4 α 2 η 2 (1η)
C min (2a)=p(τ,2) 1 4 [1 (1η) 2 ] 2 ( 0 1 2 τ dt p 1 (t)[ 1 2 τ τt +p( 1 2 τt,1) 1 2 ]+ 1 2 τ τ dt p 1 (t)[ 1+p(t 1 2 τ,1) 1 2 ] )
C min (2b)= C min (2a)
C min (2c)=0
C min (2d)=p(τ,2) 1 4 [1 (1η) 2 ] 2 [1+ (1η) 2 ] [ 0 1 2 τ dt p 1 (t)p( 1 2 τt,1) 1 2 + 1 2 τ τ dt p 1 (t)p(t 1 2 τ,1) 1 2 ]
C min (2)= C min (2a)+ C min (2b)+ C min (2c)+ C min (2d)= 3 4 α 2 η 2 (1η)
1V= L excess 2 (1+SR) 2 2SR

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