Abstract

We numerically investigate the direct and indirect optical interactions of pair circular resonators laterally confined by metal-insulator waveguide. The direct optical interaction shows the split of quality (Q) factors of bonding and antibonding states only happens for thick insulator. The indirect optical interaction through a waveguide is proposed to control the modes resonance and collect the output emissions. The Q factors of resonant modes versus the coupling distance (width of waveguide) are studied. The results show whispering gallery modes(WGMs) engaged into interaction are strongly coupled with the guided waves of waveguide once its width is close to the cut-off width of guided waves, while the coupled mode of two WGMs is not limited by this condition. High Q factor mode, combined with a robust wide emission waveguide(close to the cut-off width of second-order guided waves), can be realized from the bonding states of WGM and coupled WGM with an added wave envelope in waveguide. In addition to the pair resonators, the studies on four resonators interacted with each other through waveguide are also addressed and wide waveguide output is anticipated.

© 2013 OSA

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  25. Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

M. Benyoucef, J. B. Shim, J. Wiersig, and O. G. Schmidt, “Quality-factor enhancement of supermodes in coupled microdisks,” Opt. Lett.36, 1317–1319 (2011).

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. J. Che and Y. Z. Huang, “Output characteristics of metallically coated square microcavity connected with an output waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 113103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Analysis of coupled microcircular resonators coupled to a bus waveguide with high output efficiency,” Opt. Lett.35, 1953–955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Boriskina and L. D. Negro, “Self-referenced photonic molecule bio(chemical)sensor,” Opt. Lett.35, 2496–2498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, J. X. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Mode coupling between first- and second-order whispering-gallery modes in coupled microdisks,” Opt. Lett.22, 1563–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.12, 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, “Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina, “Theoretical prediction of a dramatic Q-factor enhancement and degeneracy removal of whispering gallery modes in symmetrical photonic molecules,” Opt. Lett.31, 338–340 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pad approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1992

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

Alexander, R. W.

Astratov, V. N.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, “Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.12, 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Benyoucef, M.

Beveratos, A.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

Cai, W.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, “Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z. P.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Che, K. J.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Che and Y. Z. Huang, “Output characteristics of metallically coated square microcavity connected with an output waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 113103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. H.

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deych, L. I.

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dousse, A.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumeige, Y.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Féron, P.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W. H.

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pad approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

Hetterich, M.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Huang, Y. Z.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Analysis of coupled microcircular resonators coupled to a bus waveguide with high output efficiency,” Opt. Lett.35, 1953–955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Che and Y. Z. Huang, “Output characteristics of metallically coated square microcavity connected with an output waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 113103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Li, J. X. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Mode coupling between first- and second-order whispering-gallery modes in coupled microdisks,” Opt. Lett.22, 1563–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pad approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, S.

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.12, 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanaev, A. V.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, “Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karl, M.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. M.

J. W. Ryu, J. H. Cho, C. M. Kim, S. Shinohara, and S. W. Kim, “Terahertz beat frequency generation from two-mode lasing operation of coupled microdisk laser,” Opt. Lett.37, 3210–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

Klembt, S.

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krebs, O.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kruse, C.

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemaître, A.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. J.

J. J. Li, J. X. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Mode coupling between first- and second-order whispering-gallery modes in coupled microdisks,” Opt. Lett.22, 1563–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. J.

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pad approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, W.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, F. M.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mortier, M.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Myers, R. C.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, A.

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.12, 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ntzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Park, Y. J.

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Passow, T.

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rafizadeh, D.

Ryu, J. W.

J. W. Ryu, J. H. Cho, C. M. Kim, S. Shinohara, and S. W. Kim, “Terahertz beat frequency generation from two-mode lasing operation of coupled microdisk laser,” Opt. Lett.37, 3210–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samarth, N.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

Sebald, K.

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seyfried, M.

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, J. B.

Shinohara, S.

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stair, K. A.

Suffczynski, J.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

Trebaol, S.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vries, T. D.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. X.

J. J. Li, J. X. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Mode coupling between first- and second-order whispering-gallery modes in coupled microdisks,” Opt. Lett.22, 1563–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Analysis of coupled microcircular resonators coupled to a bus waveguide with high output efficiency,” Opt. Lett.35, 1953–955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wiersig, J.

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. D.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wang, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Analysis of coupled microcircular resonators coupled to a bus waveguide with high output efficiency,” Opt. Lett.35, 1953–955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Q. F.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. V. Kanaev, V. N. Astratov, and W. Cai, “Optical coupling at a distance between detuned spherical cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.3, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. Li, R. C. Myers, F. M. Mendoza, D. D. Awschalom, and N. Samarth, “Polarized emission from twin microdisk photonic molecules,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45, 932–936 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.

K. J. Che, Q. F. Yao, Y. Z. Huang, Z. P. Cai, Y. D. Yang, and Y. Du, “Multiple-port InP/InGaAsP square-resonator microlasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.17, 1656–1661 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, A. Nakagawa, and T. Baba, “Modal characteristics and bistability in twin microdisk photonic molecule lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.12, 71–77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.

W. H. Guo, W. J. Li, and Y. Z. Huang, “Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pad approximation,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.11, 223–225 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

L. Xiao, S. Trebaol, Y. Dumeige, Z. P. Cai, M. Mortier, and P. Féron, “Miniaturized optical microwave source using a dual-wavelength whispering gallery mode laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.22, 559–561 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. Che and Y. Z. Huang, “Output characteristics of metallically coated square microcavity connected with an output waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys.107, 113103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Lett.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nat. Lett.466, 217–220 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. D. Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics.1, 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics.4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express.

Y. D. Yang, S. J. Wang, and Y. Z. Huang, “Investigation of mode coupling in a microdisk resonator for realizing directional emission,” Opt. Express.25, 23010–23015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Sebald, M. Seyfried, S. Klembt, and C. Kruse, “Optical properties of photonic molecules and elliptical pillars made of ZnSe-based microcavities,” Opt. Express.19, 19422–19429 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Karl, S. Li, T. Passow, W. Löffler, H. Kalt, and M. Hetterich, “Localized and delocalized modes in coupled optical micropillar cavities,” Opt. Express.15, 8191–8196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. I. Deych, C. Schmidt, A. Chipouline, T. Pertsch, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical coupling of fundamental whispering-gallery modes in bispheres,” Phys. Rev. A77, 051801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Ryu, S. Y. Lee, C. M. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks,” Phys. Rev. A74, 013804 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics-The finite-difference time-domain method, 3rd ed.Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2005.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)The schematic of adhered pair circular resonators with MI confinement. (b) The electric field profiles of EE and EO, OE and OO states of (11,1). (c) the resonant wavelength of EO and OO states of coupled resonator and single resonator versus the thickness of insulator, the opened stars denote the discrepancy of wavelength. (d) The quality factors versus the thickness of insulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic of coupled (a) pair and (b) four MI confined circular resonators with a waveguide for emission output. (c) The Wcut–off of guided waves of MI confined waveguide versus di at wavelength 1.55 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)The Q factors of (11,1)o, (5,3)e, [(8,2)+(5,3)]o and [(8,2)+(5,3)]e versus W as di=0.2 μm. (b) The resonant spectra of pair circular resonators coupled through a waveguide with width W=0.25μm and 0.48 μm. (c) The field profiles of collectively resonant mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)The Q factors and (b)resonant wavelength of (11,1)oo, (8,2)ee and [(11,1)+(8,2)]oo versus the uniform W of both waveguides as di=0.2 μm. (c) The field profiles of [(11,1)+(8,2)]oo, (8,2)ee as W=0.42 μm.

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