Abstract

The magnetic modulation of the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wavevector is experimentally and theoretically studied for the plasmonic modes excited in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) magnetoplasmonic cavities. For this purpose, Ag/SiO2/Ag multilayers with different SiO2 layer thickness in which a thin Co layer is positioned near the top Ag/SiO2 interface, near the bottom SiO2/Ag one, or near both of them, are studied. The magnetoplasmonic MIM cavities present symmetric (SM) and antisymmetric (AM) plasmonic modes, of different wavevector and electromagnetic field profiles inside the MIM cavity. We show that the magnetic SPP wavevector modulation strongly depends on which mode is considered, the cavity thickness, and the number and specific location of Co layers within the structure. With only one ferromagnetic layer, a net modulation is obtained, of higher magnitude as we reduce the SiO2 layer thickness. The introduction of a second Co layer in the structure reduces the modulation due to the non-reciprocal character of SPP modes under an applied magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate that the non-reciprocal nature of the SPP modulation can be experimentally visualized in the magnetic hysteresis loops under plasmon excitation conditions by using two Co layers with different magnetization switching fields.

© 2013 OSA

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  24. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(26), 3584–3587 (1994).
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  28. C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B64(23), 235422 (2001).
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  29. J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B76(15), 153402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. Armelles, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, M. Ujué González, S. Acimovic, J. Cesario, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of continuous Au/Co/Au trilayers,” Opt. Express16(20), 16104–16112 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 107–111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic field modulation of intense surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express18(8), 7743–7752 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic-field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons on gratings,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1557–1559 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. F. Torrado, J. B. González-Díaz, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, and G. Armelles, “Magneto-optical effects in interacting localized and propagating surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express18(15), 15635–15642 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. Martín-Becerra, V. V. Temnov, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Spectral dependence of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in noble/ferromagnetic/noble metal films,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035118 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  37. E. Ferreiro Vila, X. M. Bendana Sueiro, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada Navarro, G. Armelles Reig, D. Meneses Rodriguez, and E. Muñoz Sandoval, “Surface plasmon resonance effects in the magneto-optical activity of Ag-Co-Ag trilayers,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44(11), 3303–3306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Ferreiro-Vila, M. Iglesias, E. Paz, F. J. Palomares, F. Cebollada, J. M. González, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, and A. Cebollada, “Magneto-optical and magnetoplasmonic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Au/Fe/Au trilayers,” Phys. Rev. B83(20), 205120 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Regatos, D. Fariña, A. Calle, A. Cebollada, B. Sepúlveda, G. Armelles, and L. M. Lechuga, “Au/Fe/Au multilayer transducers for magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  41. B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, and G. Armelles, “Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(2), 945–955 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. B. Khurgin, “Optical isolating action in surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(2), 023902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. Weller, G. R. Harp, R. F. C. Farrow, A. Cebollada, and J. Sticht, “Orientation dependence of the polar Kerr effect in fcc and hcp Co,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2097–2100 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

D. Martín-Becerra, V. V. Temnov, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Spectral dependence of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in noble/ferromagnetic/noble metal films,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

E. Ferreiro-Vila, M. Iglesias, E. Paz, F. J. Palomares, F. Cebollada, J. M. González, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, and A. Cebollada, “Magneto-optical and magnetoplasmonic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Au/Fe/Au trilayers,” Phys. Rev. B83(20), 205120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, A. Pannipitiya, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Exact dispersion relation for nonlinear plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 113409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

D. Regatos, D. Fariña, A. Calle, A. Cebollada, B. Sepúlveda, G. Armelles, and L. M. Lechuga, “Au/Fe/Au multilayer transducers for magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 107–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic field modulation of intense surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express18(8), 7743–7752 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic-field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons on gratings,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1557–1559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Torrado, J. B. González-Díaz, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, and G. Armelles, “Magneto-optical effects in interacting localized and propagating surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express18(15), 15635–15642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film Barium Titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ferreiro Vila, X. M. Bendana Sueiro, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada Navarro, G. Armelles Reig, D. Meneses Rodriguez, and E. Muñoz Sandoval, “Surface plasmon resonance effects in the magneto-optical activity of Ag-Co-Ag trilayers,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44(11), 3303–3306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “One-way electromagnetic waveguide formed at the interface between a plasmonic metal under a static magnetic field and a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(2), 023902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Armelles, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, M. Ujué González, S. Acimovic, J. Cesario, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of continuous Au/Co/Au trilayers,” Opt. Express16(20), 16104–16112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B76(15), 153402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (11)

J. B. Khurgin, “Optical isolating action in surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, L. M. Lechuga, and G. Armelles, “Highly sensitive detection of biomolecules with the magneto-optic surface-plasmon-resonance sensor,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1085–1087 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, and G. Armelles, “Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(2), 945–955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett.31(22), 3288–3290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett.6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Effective mode volume of nanoscale plasmon cavities,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(1-3), 257–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett.5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B64(23), 235422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(26), 3584–3587 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weller, G. R. Harp, R. F. C. Farrow, A. Cebollada, and J. Sticht, “Orientation dependence of the polar Kerr effect in fcc and hcp Co,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2097–2100 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Acimovic, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

I. D. Rukhlenko, A. Pannipitiya, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Exact dispersion relation for nonlinear plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B84(11), 113409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arbel, D.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armelles, G.

D. Martín-Becerra, V. V. Temnov, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Spectral dependence of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in noble/ferromagnetic/noble metal films,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferreiro-Vila, M. Iglesias, E. Paz, F. J. Palomares, F. Cebollada, J. M. González, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, and A. Cebollada, “Magneto-optical and magnetoplasmonic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Au/Fe/Au trilayers,” Phys. Rev. B83(20), 205120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Torrado, J. B. González-Díaz, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, and G. Armelles, “Magneto-optical effects in interacting localized and propagating surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express18(15), 15635–15642 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 107–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Regatos, D. Fariña, A. Calle, A. Cebollada, B. Sepúlveda, G. Armelles, and L. M. Lechuga, “Au/Fe/Au multilayer transducers for magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.108(5), 054502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 107–111 (2010).
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J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
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J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
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E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
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J. F. Torrado, J. B. González-Díaz, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, and G. Armelles, “Magneto-optical effects in interacting localized and propagating surface plasmon modes,” Opt. Express18(15), 15635–15642 (2010).
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D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Armelles, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, M. Ujué González, S. Acimovic, J. Cesario, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of continuous Au/Co/Au trilayers,” Opt. Express16(20), 16104–16112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ferreiro Vila, X. M. Bendana Sueiro, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada Navarro, G. Armelles Reig, D. Meneses Rodriguez, and E. Muñoz Sandoval, “Surface plasmon resonance effects in the magneto-optical activity of Ag-Co-Ag trilayers,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44(11), 3303–3306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B76(15), 153402 (2007).
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E. Ferreiro-Vila, M. Iglesias, E. Paz, F. J. Palomares, F. Cebollada, J. M. González, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, and A. Cebollada, “Magneto-optical and magnetoplasmonic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Au/Fe/Au trilayers,” Phys. Rev. B83(20), 205120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ferreiro-Vila, J. B. González-Díaz, R. Fermento, M. U. González, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, D. Meneses-Rodríguez, and E. Muñoz-Sandoval, “Intertwined magneto-optical and plasmonic effects in Ag/Co/Ag layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B80(12), 125132 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Armelles, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada, M. Ujué González, S. Acimovic, J. Cesario, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Localized surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of continuous Au/Co/Au trilayers,” Opt. Express16(20), 16104–16112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ferreiro Vila, X. M. Bendana Sueiro, J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, J. M. García-Martín, A. Cebollada Navarro, G. Armelles Reig, D. Meneses Rodriguez, and E. Muñoz Sandoval, “Surface plasmon resonance effects in the magneto-optical activity of Ag-Co-Ag trilayers,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44(11), 3303–3306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B76(15), 153402 (2007).
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González, J. M.

E. Ferreiro-Vila, M. Iglesias, E. Paz, F. J. Palomares, F. Cebollada, J. M. González, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, and A. Cebollada, “Magneto-optical and magnetoplasmonic properties of epitaxial and polycrystalline Au/Fe/Au trilayers,” Phys. Rev. B83(20), 205120 (2011).
[CrossRef]

González, M. U.

D. Martín-Becerra, V. V. Temnov, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Spectral dependence of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in noble/ferromagnetic/noble metal films,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
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D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1(7), 402–406 (2007).
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C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B64(23), 235422 (2001).
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J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
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C. Hermann, V. A. Kosobukin, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, V. I. Safarov, and P. Bertrand, “Surface-enhanced magneto-optics in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. B64(23), 235422 (2001).
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V. I. Safarov, V. A. Kosobukin, C. Hermann, G. Lampel, J. Peretti, and C. Marlière, “Magneto-optical effects enhanced by surface plasmons in metallic multilayer films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(26), 3584–3587 (1994).
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Sepúlveda, B.

Skuza, J. R.

C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic field modulation of intense surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express18(8), 7743–7752 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clavero, K. Yang, J. R. Skuza, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Magnetic-field modulation of surface plasmon polaritons on gratings,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1557–1559 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. González-Díaz, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, J. M. García-Martín, C. Clavero, A. Cebollada, R. A. Lukaszew, J. R. Skuza, D. P. Kumah, and R. Clarke, “Surface-magnetoplasmon nonreciprocity effects in noble-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B76(15), 153402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. Weller, G. R. Harp, R. F. C. Farrow, A. Cebollada, and J. Sticht, “Orientation dependence of the polar Kerr effect in fcc and hcp Co,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(13), 2097–2100 (1994).
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M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film Barium Titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett.8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett.5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Martín-Becerra, V. V. Temnov, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, G. Armelles, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Spectral dependence of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in noble/ferromagnetic/noble metal films,” Phys. Rev. B86(3), 035118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, G. Armelles, U. Woggon, D. Guzatov, A. Cebollada, A. Garcia-Martin, J. M. Garcia-Martin, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Active magneto-plasmonics in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 107–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Martín-Becerra, J. B. González-Díaz, V. V. Temnov, A. Cebollada, G. Armelles, T. Thomay, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, A. García-Martín, and M. U. González, “Enhancement of the magnetic modulation of surface plasmon polaritons in Au/Co/Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183114 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Effective index evolution of the TM modes confined inside a Ag/SiO2/Ag MIM structure as a function of SiO2 thickness at 1.985 eV (HeNe laser). The grey area delimits the effective index region accessible when exciting the structure by ATR configuration through a SF10 glass substrate (n = 1.723). The patterned portion inside defines the accessible region presenting only plasmonic modes, which corresponds to the experimental area of interest for this work. Inset: Scheme of a MIM structure, with one SPP at each metal-dielectric interface. (b) Magnetic field amplitude (Hy) distribution for both plasmonic modes, AM (red dashed line) and SM (black continuous line), inside a MIM cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulation of the SPP wavevector modulation for 1.985 eV as a function of SiO2 thickness for the symmetric (SM) and antisymmetric (AM) modes in three magnetoplasmonic MIM systems: with one Co layer inserted in the bottom metallic cladding, Cobottom [Ag/ SiO2/10 nm Ag/6 nm Co/Ag] (blue line); with one Co layer in the top cladding, Cotop [Ag/6 nm Co/10 nm Ag/SiO2/Ag] (grey dotted line); and with two Co layers, one in each cladding [Ag/6 nm Co/10 nm Ag/SiO2/10 nm Ag/6 nm Co/Ag] (green dashed line). (b) Left: Sketch of the relations for the magnetic modulation sign in single interfaces depending on the magnetic field and wavevector directions and on the interface configuration. Right: Resulting magnetic modulation contribution to the SPP wavevector from each insulator/metal interface in a symmetric MIM structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawings of the three series of MIM-MP cavities fabricated on SF10 substrates, with different Co layer position: underneath SiO2 layer, Cobottom; on top of the SiO2 layer, Cotop; and both below and above the SiO2 layer, 2xCo.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) AFM image of a representative MIM-MP cavity (w0 SiO2 = 380 nm of the Cobottom series). (b) AFM profiles for the w0 SiO2 = 380 nm samples of the three MIM-MP cavity series, together with the profile of a 0 nm SiO2 sample as a reference. The curves are vertically offset for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Upper part) Schema of the TMOKE setup. (Lower part) Representative TMOKE loops for the w0 SiO2 = 380 nm samples of the three series: Cobottom (left), Cotop (center) and 2xCo (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scheme of the TMOKE measurements under Kretschmann configuration to allow SPP excitation. (b) Experimental (blue circles) and simulated (black line) reflectivity curves for a representative MIM-MP cavity (w0 SiO2 = 260 nm of the Cobottom series) showing the antisymmetric and symmetric modes. (c) Schematic representation of the effect that the direction of the magnetization (positive-black line, negative-red line) has on the reflectivity curve for a MP-MIM structure. For the sake of clarity the effect of the magnetic field on the SPP wavevector has been exaggerated. (d) TMOKE curve showing the resonances around the excitation of the two modes and the fitting to the angular derivative of the experimental reflectivity used to obtain Δθ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental (left column) and simulated (right column) absolute values of the magnetic modulation of the SPP wavevector (|Δk/k|SPP) as a function of SiO2 thickness for AM (red triangles and dashed lines) and SM (black symbols and solid lines) plasmonic modes in Cobottom (a), Cotop (b) and 2xCo (c) MP-MIM cavities. In (c),the |Δk/k|SPP values of the 2xCo series are compared to the absolute difference of the Cobottom and Cotop series modulation values for the AM (star symbols) and the SM modes (hexagonal grey symbols).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Representative TMOKE loops under SPP excitation for the 380 nm SiO2 thickness sample of the Cobottom series (left), the Cotop series (center) and the 2xCo series (right). (b) Reflectivity curves for different magnetic orientation of the Co layers for the same samples as in (a). The vertical dashed line indicates the incident angle at which the TMOKE loops were measured. For the sake of clarity the effect of the magnetic field on the SPP wavevector has been exaggerated.

Equations (3)

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( Δk k ) SPP = k SPP (+H) k SPP (H) 2 k SPP (H=0) .
ΔR R = dR dθ Δθ 2R ,
( Δk k ) SPP = Δθ 2 cot θ min ,

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