Abstract

Dermoscopy is the conventional technique used for the clinical inspection of human skin lesions. However, the identification of diagnostically relevant morphologies can become a complex task. We report on the development of a polarization multispectral dermoscope for the in vivo imaging of skin lesions. Linearly polarized illumination at three distinct spectral regions (470, 530 and 625 nm), is performed by high luminance LEDs. Processing of the acquired images, by means of spectral and polarization filtering, produces new contrast images, each one specific for melanin absorption, hemoglobin absorption, and single scattering. Analysis of such images could facilitate the identification of pathological morphologies.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bae, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Demos, H. Radousky, and R. Alfano, “Deep subsurface imaging in tissues using spectral and polarization filtering,” Opt. Express7(1), 23–28 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

S. W. Menzies, C. Ingvar, and W. H. McCarthy, “A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma,” Melanoma Res.6(1), 55–62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

H. Pehamberger, A. Steiner, and K. Wolff, “In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.17(4), 571–583 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

W. A. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol.40(2), 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R.

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, C.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argenziano, G.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avramidis, M.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, Y.

Y. Bae, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bargo, P.

Bassukas, I.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilek, P.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bischof, L.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blum, A.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogdan, A.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, R.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, R. P.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun-Falco, O.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brocker, C.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruls, W. A.

W. A. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol.40(2), 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykowski, J.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canpolat, M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carli, P.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicale, L.

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claridge, E.

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognetta, A. B.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corona, R.

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotton, S.

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cranney, B.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Giorgi, V.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De’Ambrosis, B.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfino, M.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demos, S.

Demos, S. G.

Di Stefani, A.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

Dusza, S. W.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbaum, M.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esponda-Ramos, O.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabbrocini, G.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrara, G.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galaris, D.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenebaum, M.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grin, C.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutenev, A.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, P.

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henricson, J.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann-Wellenhof, R.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingvar, C.

S. W. Menzies, C. Ingvar, and W. H. McCarthy, “A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma,” Melanoma Res.6(1), 55–62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johr, R.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, B.

Y. Bae, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamino, H.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaxiras, E.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keem, S.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, J.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerl, H.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koga, H.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

S. H. Tseng, P. Bargo, A. Durkin, and N. Kollias, “Chromophore concentrations, absorption and scattering properties of human skin in-vivo,” Opt. Express17(17), 14599–14617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, A. W.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landthaler, M.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langley, R. G.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, M. J.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S. K.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lye, P.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackellar, G.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marghoob, A. A.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matanock, A.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, W.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, W. H.

S. W. Menzies, C. Ingvar, and W. H. McCarthy, “A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma,” Melanoma Res.6(1), 55–62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCleod, R.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzies, S. W.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Menzies, C. Ingvar, and W. H. McCarthy, “A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma,” Melanoma Res.6(1), 55–62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merkle, T.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihm, M. C.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moncrieff, M.

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nachbar, F.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Y. Bae, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Doherty, J.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliviero, M.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peck, G. L.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pehamberger, H.

H. Pehamberger, A. Steiner, and K. Wolff, “In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.17(4), 571–583 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrillo, G.

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plewig, G.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabinovitz, H.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabinovitz, H. S.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radousky, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruocco, E.

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sammarco, E.

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankaran, V.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saurat, J. H.

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scope, A.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sera, F.

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjöberg, F.

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skladnev, V.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sober, A. J.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soyer, H. P.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, A.

H. Pehamberger, A. Steiner, and K. Wolff, “In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.17(4), 571–583 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stetter, K.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talbot, H.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. H.

Tsolakidis, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Leun, J. C.

W. A. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol.40(2), 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varol, A.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, T.

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Q.

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, K.

H. Pehamberger, A. Steiner, and K. Wolff, “In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.17(4), 571–583 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, L.

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalaudek, I.

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Dermatol. (4)

G. Argenziano, I. Zalaudek, R. Corona, F. Sera, L. Cicale, G. Petrillo, E. Ruocco, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, and H. P. Soyer, “Vascular structures in skin tumors: a dermoscopy study,” Arch. Dermatol.140(12), 1485–1489 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol.127(7), 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Argenziano, G. Fabbrocini, P. Carli, V. De Giorgi, E. Sammarco, and M. Delfino, “Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis,” Arch. Dermatol.134(12), 1563–1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Menzies, L. Bischof, H. Talbot, A. Gutenev, M. Avramidis, L. Wong, S. K. Lo, G. Mackellar, V. Skladnev, W. McCarthy, J. Kelly, B. Cranney, P. Lye, H. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. Blum, A. Varol, B. De’Ambrosis, R. McCleod, H. Koga, C. Grin, R. Braun, and R. Johr, “The performance of SolarScan: an automated dermoscopy image analysis instrument for the diagnosis of primary melanoma,” Arch. Dermatol.141(11), 1388–1396 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

M. Moncrieff, S. Cotton, E. Claridge, and P. Hall, “Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis: a new technique for imaging pigmented skin lesions,” Br. J. Dermatol.146(3), 448–457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

S. Q. Wang, S. W. Dusza, A. Scope, R. P. Braun, A. W. Kopf, and A. A. Marghoob, “Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg.34(10), 1389–1395 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatology (Basel) (1)

I. Zalaudek, G. Argenziano, A. Di Stefani, G. Ferrara, A. A. Marghoob, R. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. P. Soyer, R. Braun, and H. Kerl, “Dermoscopy in general dermatology,” Dermatology (Basel)212(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (4)

R. P. Braun, H. S. Rabinovitz, M. Oliviero, A. W. Kopf, and J. H. Saurat, “Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.52(1), 109–121 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pehamberger, A. Steiner, and K. Wolff, “In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.17(4), 571–583 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Nachbar, W. Stolz, T. Merkle, A. B. Cognetta, T. Vogt, M. Landthaler, P. Bilek, O. Braun-Falco, and G. Plewig, “The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy. High prospective value in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.30(4), 551–559 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Elbaum, A. W. Kopf, H. S. Rabinovitz, R. G. Langley, H. Kamino, M. C. Mihm, A. J. Sober, G. L. Peck, A. Bogdan, D. Gutkowicz-Krusin, M. Greenebaum, S. Keem, M. Oliviero, and S. Wang, “Automatic differentiation of melanoma from melanocytic nevi with multispectral digital dermoscopy: a feasibility study,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.44(2), 207–218 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, “Melanin absorption spectroscopy: new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(1), 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bae, J. S. Nelson, and B. Jung, “Multimodal facial color imaging modality for objective analysis of skin lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, “Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (3)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol.104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, “The optics of human skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol.77(1), 13–19 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, “Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol.117(6), 1452–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med.26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melanoma Res. (1)

S. W. Menzies, C. Ingvar, and W. H. McCarthy, “A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma,” Melanoma Res.6(1), 55–62 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

W. A. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, “Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers,” Photochem. Photobiol.40(2), 231–242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

J. O’Doherty, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, M. J. Leahy, G. E. Nilsson, and F. Sjöberg, “Sub-epidermal imaging using polarized light spectroscopy for assessment of skin microcirculation,” Skin Res. Technol.13(4), 472–484 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. A. Prahl and S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties spectra” (2001), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/ .

Derma Medical Systems Handels und Entwicklungs GmbH, “Mole Max,” (2012), http://www.dermamedicalsystems.com .

S. Menzies, Dermoscopy: An Atlas (McGraw-Hill, Sydney, 2009).

A. A. Marghoob, R. P. Braun, and A. W. Kopf, Atlas of Dermoscopy (Taylor & Francis, London; New York, 2005).

J. Malvehy, Handbook of Dermoscopy (Taylor & Francis, London, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Diagram of the Dermoscope head b) Image of the Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope where the main parts of the device can be seen, DH: dermoscope head, the circular arrangement of the LEDS can be seen and the polarizer is placed in front the LEDs, ECB: electronics control box, PC: the computer used for instrument control and image acquisition, Tr. A tripod used to mount the device. c) Absorption spectrum of Hemoglobin (oxyHb: oxygenated Hemoglobin, deoxyHb: deoxygenated Hemoglobin) and Melanin (reproduced from Ref. [21]). The graph is in logarithmic scale in arbitrary units of absorbance. The illumination spectrum of each LED set according to their FWHM is indicated on the graph. d) front view of the dermoscope head with LEDs off and on.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A case of Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) a) Dermoscopic image (White90), scale bar: 1mm, b) Green90, star: small arborizing vessels, c) Red90, d) Blood Contrast, arrow: arborizing blood vessel, star: small arborizing vessels, e) Melanin Contrast, arrow: spoke wheel area, star: peppering morphology, arrowhead: large ovoid nest, f) Blue0, g) Blue90, h) Scattering Contrast, arrow: wrinkle, star: epidermal proliferation, arrowhead: Milia-like cysts (scale bar:1 mm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A case of melanocytic mole a) Dermoscopic image, scale bar: 1mm, b) Blue90 image, c) Green90, d) Red90 image, e) Melanin contrast, arrow: deep melanocytic structures f) Superficial Melanin Contrast, arrowhead: superficial globular melanocytic structures g) Blood Contrast, h) Melanin Corrected Blood Contrast, star: dot vessels, i) Scattering Contrast, arrow: Comedo-like openings, arrowhead: wrinkles (scale bar:1 mm).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Melanin Contrast = Red90 1ch - min ( Red90 1ch ) max( Red90 1ch ) - min ( Red90 1ch ) 255
Blood Contrast = Green90 Red90 Green90 + Red90
Scattering Contrast=Blue0 Blue90=Blue0 s + Blue0 m Blue90=Blue 0 s
Superficial Melanin Contrast = Blue90 Green90 Blue90 + Green90
Melanin Corrected Blood Contrast=Bloon Con.-Superficial Melanin Con.

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