Abstract

We present results of 2D real-time imaging of terahertz (THz) beam generated by a photoconductive antenna driven by a femtosecond oscillator. The detector, operating at room temperature, is a 320 x 240 array of antenna-coupled microbolometers with integrated CMOS read-out electronics delivering 25 images per second. High quality images of broadband THz beams covering the 0.1-2 THz range are recorded while maintaining a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 for detected THz power as low as 25 nW. The compactness of the easy-to-use uncooled camera makes it very useful for the alignment of systems such as THz time-domain spectrometers and for the characterization of emitters, optics and other components.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  23. This concept of effective area is useful when no simple mathematical description of the beam shape can be given. For instance, considering pixels which side is of unity length, a 2D Gaussian beam of diameter 2w (calculated at e−1) with magnitude of 1 will support a total energy of πw2, so its effective area Seff would also be πw2. This obviously implies that a Gaussian beam can be approximated by a cylinder of diameter 2w, as it is often done in optics. Finally, let us note that for linear THz-matter interaction this normalized coefficient Seff should be independent of the excitation power.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. Because of different excitation parameters, the emitted THz power was reduced by a factor of 2.66 for the experimental data plotted in Fig. 7(b) and 7(c), as compared to the data plotted in Fig. 7(a).
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  28. J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, J. Lalanne Dera, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, D. T. Nguyen, and J. L. Ouvrier-Buffet, “Terahertz frequency agility of uncooled antenna-coupled micro-bolometer arrays,” in Proceedings of IEEE 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2012).

2012

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

2011

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, H. Videlier, M. Sakowicz, F. Teppe, L. Dussopt, B. Giffard, T. Skotnicki, and W. Knap, “Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors,” Opt. Express19(8), 7827–7832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Clough, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, ““All air-plasma” terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2399–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field terahertz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett.31(10), 1546–1548 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Sankaran and K. O. Kenneth, “Schottky barrier diodes for millimeter wave detection in a foundry CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(7), 492–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

1996

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Ala-Laurinaho, J.

Anders, S.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boppel, S.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cathabard, O.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clough, B.

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coquillat, D.

Coutaz, J.-L.

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Delplanque, B.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dietlein, C.

Dreyhaupt, A.

Dudley, R. A.

J. F. Molloy, M. Naftaly, and R. A. Dudley, “Characterization of Terahertz Beam Profile and Propagation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Durand, T.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dussopt, L.

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerecht, E.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gidon, S.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giffard, B.

Gronberg, L.

Gronholm, M.

Grossman, E.

Gu, D.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Hu, B. B.

Hu, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kašalynas, I.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kenneth, K. O.

S. Sankaran and K. O. Kenneth, “Schottky barrier diodes for millimeter wave detection in a foundry CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(7), 492–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khazan, M. A.

Knap, W.

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krause, U.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroupa, J.

Kužel, P.

Lalanne Dera, J.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lappalainen, P.

Lasfargues, G.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leivo, M.

Lisauskas, A.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Luukanen, A.

Maillou, T.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maineult, W.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

May, T.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meilhan, J.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.-G.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minkevicius, L.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J. F.

J. F. Molloy, M. Naftaly, and R. A. Dudley, “Characterization of Terahertz Beam Profile and Propagation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Naftaly, M.

J. F. Molloy, M. Naftaly, and R. A. Dudley, “Characterization of Terahertz Beam Profile and Propagation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Nguyen, D. T.

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Oda, N.

N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type THz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys.11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouvrier-Buffet, J.-L.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

Pocas, S.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rautiainen, A.

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Morales, F.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rößler, M.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakowicz, M.

Sankaran, S.

S. Sankaran and K. O. Kenneth, “Schottky barrier diodes for millimeter wave detection in a foundry CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(7), 492–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, F.

Seliuta, D.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simoens, F.

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skotnicki, T.

Starkloff, M.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamminen, A.

Tamošiunas, V.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

Thorwirth, G.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valušis, G.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Videlier, H.

Wadefalk, N.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

Xu, J. Z.

Yngvesson, S.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zakosarenko, V.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, R.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zieger, G.

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Minkevičius, V. Tamošiunas, I. Kašalynas, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Lisauskas, S. Boppel, H. G. Roskos, and K. Köhler, “Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(13), 131101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys.

N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type THz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys.11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S. Sankaran and K. O. Kenneth, “Schottky barrier diodes for millimeter wave detection in a foundry CMOS process,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(7), 492–494 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. F. Molloy, M. Naftaly, and R. A. Dudley, “Characterization of Terahertz Beam Profile and Propagation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, “A reliable method for extraction of material parameters in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 739–746 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, N. Wadefalk, and J. Nicholson, “Development of Integrated HEB/MMIC Receivers for Near-Range Terahertz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.

D. T. Nguyen, F. Simoens, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, J. Meilhan, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Broadband THz uncooled antenna-coupled microbolometer array – electromagnetic design, simulations and measurements,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol.2, 299–305 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

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Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

F. Simoens, J. Meilhan, B. Delplanque, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, J. Lalanne Dera, D. T. Nguyen, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, S. Pocas, T. Maillou, O. Cathabard, and S. Barbieri, “Real-time imaging with THz fully-customized uncooled amorphous-silicon microbolometer focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE8363, 83630D, 83630D-12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoens, T. Durand, J. Meilhan, P. Gellie, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array,” Proc. SPIE7485, 74850M, 74850M-10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. May, G. Zieger, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, M. Starkloff, M. Rößler, G. Thorwirth, and U. Krause, “Safe VISITOR: VISible, Infrared and Terahertz Object Recognition for security screening application,” Proc. SPIE7309, 73090E, 73090E-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

U. R. Pfeiffer, “Silicon CMOS/SiGe transceiver circuits for THz applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 12th Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2012), pp. 159–162.

See http://www.ophiropt.com/user_files/laser/beam_profilers/Pyroelectric-array-camera.pdf

This concept of effective area is useful when no simple mathematical description of the beam shape can be given. For instance, considering pixels which side is of unity length, a 2D Gaussian beam of diameter 2w (calculated at e−1) with magnitude of 1 will support a total energy of πw2, so its effective area Seff would also be πw2. This obviously implies that a Gaussian beam can be approximated by a cylinder of diameter 2w, as it is often done in optics. Finally, let us note that for linear THz-matter interaction this normalized coefficient Seff should be independent of the excitation power.

Because of different excitation parameters, the emitted THz power was reduced by a factor of 2.66 for the experimental data plotted in Fig. 7(b) and 7(c), as compared to the data plotted in Fig. 7(a).

M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, and P. J. Greenslade, “TeraHertz transmission in polymer materials – a data library,” in Proceedings of IEEE 32th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 819–820.

J. Meilhan, F. Simoens, J. Lalanne Dera, S. Gidon, G. Lasfargues, D. T. Nguyen, and J. L. Ouvrier-Buffet, “Terahertz frequency agility of uncooled antenna-coupled micro-bolometer arrays,” in Proceedings of IEEE 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2012).

J. Meilhan, S. Pocas, J.-L. Ouvrier-Buffet, T. Maillou, P. Gellie, and S. Barbieri, “THz uncooled microbolometer array development for active imaging and spectroscopy applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 35th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2010), pp. 1–2.

M. Bolduc, M. Terroux, L. Marchese, B. Tremblay, E. Savard, M. Doucet, H. Oulachgar, C. Alain, H. Jeronimek, and A. Bergeron, “THz imaging and radiometric measurements using a microbolometer-based camera,” in Proceedings of IEEE 36th International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 1–2.

See http://www.laserquantum.com for more information about the TeraSed photoconductive emitter.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of a single pixel of the microbolometer array with a detailed view of the sensitive stacked membrane shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated absolute microbolometer spectral absorption for THz electrical field polarization aligned to the CC antenna (open circles, right vertical scale). Typical THz power spectrum delivered by the optoelectronics set-up and measured by a photoconductive antenna (continuous line, left scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental set-up: The rectangular dashed areas show the two different focusing schemes. The detector can be of different type: microbolometer array, pyroelectric powermeter or photoconductive antenna. The dotted line corresponds to the additional optical path used to trigger the photoconductive detector when the experiment is set in the THz- TDS configuration (see paragraph 3 for more details).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the broadband THz beam as focused by a parabolic mirror

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Horizontal THz beam profile. (b) Vertical THz beam profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical power dependence of the detected peak THz signal. The crosses indicate the experimental data and the error bars obtained from the power measurement P. Full line shows the best fit proportional to P2. (b) Horizontal beam profile for an estimated detected THz power of 25 nW. The dashed lines show the noise level and the maximal signal level. Inset: the corresponding 2D image with axis ranges corresponding to a surface of 70 x 75 pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

2D images of a focused beam using a f = 50 mm optics consisting in: (a) a parabolic mirror that is correctly adjusted, (b) a misaligned parabolic mirror, (c) a PTFE doublet. All images correspond to the same surface of 70 x 75 pixels.

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