Abstract

We demonstrate a continuous wave (CW) sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor laser with electrical injection at room temperature (RT). Our metal-cavity laser with a cavity volume of 0.67λ3 (λ = 1591 nm) shows a linewidth of 0.5 nm at RT, which corresponds to a Q-value of 3182 compared to 235 of the cavity Q, the highest Q under lasing condition for RT CW operation of any sub-wavelength metallic-cavity laser. Such record performance provides convincing evidences of the feasibility of RT CW sub-wavelength metallic-cavity lasers, thus opening a wide range of practical possibilities of novel nanophotonic devices based on metal-semiconductor structures.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” (Tutorial), Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.247, 774–788 (2010).
  2. D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402–027405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE6468, 646801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Yu, A. M. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. M. Lakhani, M. K. Kim, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Plasmonic crystal defect nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(19), 18237–18245 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at λ = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1988), Chap. 12.
  24. C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers,” in J. J. Coleman, A. C. Bryce, and C. Jagadish, ed. Advances in Semiconductor Lasers, Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 86 (Academic Press, San Diego CA, 2012), pp. 459–463.
  25. B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. J. H. Marell, “Gap plasmon mode distributed feedback laser,” PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2011.
  29. M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.
  31. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, New York, 1989), 329–334.
  32. K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. G. Beister and H. Wenzel, “Comparison of surface and bulk contributions to non-radiative currents in InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(3), 494–500 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (7)

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” (Tutorial), Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.247, 774–788 (2010).

K. Yu, A. M. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at λ = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE6468, 646801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

G. Beister and H. Wenzel, “Comparison of surface and bulk contributions to non-radiative currents in InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(3), 494–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402–027405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alegre, T. P. M.

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Baek, B.

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barcones, B.

Bartal, G.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beister, G.

G. Beister and H. Wenzel, “Comparison of surface and bulk contributions to non-radiative currents in InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(3), 494–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402–027405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, O.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. W.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.-C.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Dorenbos, S. N.

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, G. E.

Geluk, E. J.

Germann, T. D.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C. F.

Gong, Y.

Gontijo, I.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Q.

Hadfield, R. H.

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Hong, T.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. Y.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karouta, F.

Katz, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khajavikhan, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

Kim, S.-K.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kita, S.

Koopmans, B.

Krames, M.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, K.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuttge, M.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lakhani, A. M.

Lau, E. K.

Law, K.-K.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Lezec, H. J.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Lieber, C. M.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, V.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at λ = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Liu, Z. C.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Y.

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makarova, M.

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marell, M.

Marell, M. J. H.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, A. V.

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE6468, 646801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, M.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, M.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

Namatsu, H.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhad, M. P.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” (Tutorial), Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.247, 774–788 (2010).

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE6468, 646801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Nöetzel, R.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nozaki, K.

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perahia, R.

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shainline, J. M.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

Smit, M. K.

Sorger, V. J.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, M. J.

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402–027405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Verhoeven, J.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vrijen, R.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Wang, H.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

G. Beister and H. Wenzel, “Comparison of surface and bulk contributions to non-radiative currents in InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(3), 494–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Xu, J.

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, K.

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yerci, S.

Yin, L.

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

Yin, L. J.

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. B.

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zwiller, V.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

K. Ding, Z. Liu, L. Yin, H. Wang, R. Liu, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Electrical injection, continuous wave operation of subwavelength-metallic-cavity lasers at 260K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(23), 231108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Perahia, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Lu, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, T. D. Germann, and D. Bimberg, “Metal-cavity surface-emitting microlaser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, L. Yang, V. Liu, T. Hong, K. Vahala, and A. Scherer, “Visible submicron microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuttge, E. J. R. Vesseur, J. Verhoeven, H. J. Lezec, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Loss mechanisms of surface plasmon polaritons on gold probed by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(11), 113110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.In press.

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Y. Hu, S. W. Corzine, K.-K. Law, D. B. Young, A. C. Gossard, L. A. Coldren, and J. L. Merz, “Lateral carrier diffusion and surface recombination in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.76(8), 4479–4487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Boroditsky, I. Gontijo, M. Jackson, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, T. Krauss, C.-C. Cheng, A. Scherer, R. Bhat, and M. Krames, “Surface recombination measurements on III-V candidate materials for nanostructure light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(7), 3497–3504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Namatsu, Y. Takahashi, K. Yamazaki, T. Yamaguchi, M. Nagase, and K. Kurihara, “Three-dimensional siloxane resist for the formation of nanopatterns with minimum linewidth fluctuations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B16(1), 69–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

K. Ding and C. Z. Ning, “Metallic subwavelength-cavity semiconductor nanolasers,” Light: Sci. Appl.1(7), e20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett.10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater.10(2), 110–113 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. H. Marell, B. Smalbrugge, E. J. Geluk, P. J. van Veldhoven, B. Barcones, B. Koopmans, R. Nötzel, M. K. Smit, and M. T. Hill, “Plasmonic distributed feedback lasers at telecommunications wavelengths,” Opt. Express19(16), 15109–15118 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu, A. M. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lakhani, M. K. Kim, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Plasmonic crystal defect nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(19), 18237–18245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at λ = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Min, T. J. Kippenberg, L. Yang, K. J. Vahala, J. Kalkman, and A. Polman, “Erbium-implanted high-Q silica toroidal microcavity laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 033803 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Nöetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 041301–041305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402–027405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor nanolasers,” (Tutorial), Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.247, 774–788 (2010).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. V. Maslov and C. Z. Ning, “Size reduction of a semiconductor nanowire laser using metal coating,” Proc. SPIE6468, 646801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Beister and H. Wenzel, “Comparison of surface and bulk contributions to non-radiative currents in InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(3), 494–500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, New York, 1989), 329–334.

J. C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1988), Chap. 12.

C. Z. Ning, “Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers,” in J. J. Coleman, A. C. Bryce, and C. Jagadish, ed. Advances in Semiconductor Lasers, Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 86 (Academic Press, San Diego CA, 2012), pp. 459–463.

M. J. H. Marell, “Gap plasmon mode distributed feedback laser,” PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, 2011.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the sub-wavelength metallic-cavity semiconductor laser. (a) Semiconductor pillar with a rectangular cross section is encapsulated in silver to form a metallic cavity. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the semiconductor core. (c) SEM image of the pillar after coating SiN and silver. Scale bars in (b) and (c) are both 1µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CW characteristics at 294K. (a) Light intensity (∎: lasing mode and ●: spontaneous emission) and linewidth under DC bias. (b) Spectra (offset for clarity) at different currents with a zoom-in shown in inset at 2.02 mA with a resolution of 0.2 nm. (c) Laser intensity vs. polarizer angle with Z-direction at 180 degree.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) |E|2 patterns of E106 mode in various planes. (b) L-I curve on a log-log scale (red circle ● from measurement and solid line from RE calculation) with slopes (S) given for three regions. Right Y axis: slopes of log-log LI curve (black diamond ♦ from measurement and solid lines from RE calculation, from top to bottom for β = 0.01, 0.048, 0.132, respectively).

Metrics