Abstract

Due to their broadband saturable absorption and fast response, carbon nanotubes have proven to be an excellent material for the modelocking of fiber lasers and have become a promising device for the implementation of novel laser configurations. However, it is imperative to address the issue of their long-term reliability under intense optical pulses before they can be exploited in widespread commercial applications. In this work, we study how carbon nanotubes degrade due to oxidation when exposed to high-intensity continuous-wave light and we demonstrate that by sealing the carbon nanotubes in a nitrogen gas, the damage threshold can be increased by over one order of magnitude. We then monitor over 24 hours the performance of the carbon nanotube saturable absorbers as the passive modelocking device of an erbium-doped fiber laser with intracavity powers ranging from 5 mW to 316 mW. We observe that when the carbon nanotubes are sealed in nitrogen environment, oxidation can be efficiently prevented and the laser can operate without any deterioration at intracavity powers higher than 300 mW. However, in the case where carbon nanotubes are unprotected (i.e. those directly exposed to the air in the environment), the nanotubes start to deteriorate at intracavity powers lower than 50 mW.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

K. Kieu, R. J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of few-cycle pulses from an amplified carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of Carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, B.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Benabid, F.

Bennion, I.

Bitou, Y.

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Brown, D. P.

Chong, A.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, C. S.

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Hasan, T.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirooka, T.

Hong, E. L.

Inaba, H.

Ishigure, T.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

K. Kieu, R. J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of few-cycle pulses from an amplified carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

Kashiwagi, K.

Kaskela, A.

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kivistö, S.

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

Komatsu, K.

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez, A.

Maruyama, S.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minoshima, K.

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Nasibulin, A. G.

Neely, W.

Nicholson, J. W.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Onae, A.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Kieu, R. J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of few-cycle pulses from an amplified carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renninger, W. H.

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Set, S. Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “In-situ monitoring of optical deposition of carbon nanotubes onto fiber end,” Opt. Express17(7), 5711–5715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Sun, Z.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tillman, K. A.

Travers, J. C.

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

Wang, D.

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B. R.

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

Yoshida, M.

Zhou, K.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21, 3874–3899 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 041118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Nanosecond-pulse fiber lasers mode-locked with nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Kieu, R. J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “Generation of few-cycle pulses from an amplified carbon nanotube mode-locked fiber laser system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, D. Wang, H. Yaguchi, and S. Yamashita, “Non-synchronous optical sampling and data-pattern recovery using a repetition-rate-tunable carbon-nanotube pulsed laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.47(8), 6809–6811 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Martinez, M. Omura, M. Takiguchi, B. Xu, T. Kuga, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Multi-solitons in a dispersion managed fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-coated taper fiber,” Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JTu5A.29.

K. Fuse, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Stability enhancement of carbon-nanotube-based mode-locked fiber laser by nitrogen sealing,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Opt. (CLEO) 2011, May 2011, no. CMK5.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (1664 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)Experimental set-up. (b) Fiber-end with CNT optically-deposited in the core area, (c) combustion of the CNT when subjected to high intensity light. (d) Fiber-end after CNT damage. (e) After removing the CNTs, damage in the fiber due to CNT combustion can be observed (Media 1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber laser set-up using a CNT-SA sealed in a pressurized Nitrogen-gas chamber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflected power from the CNT-SA over a 24 hours period with (a) the CNT in air and (d) in a nitrogen-sealed during mode-locked operation at the indicated pump powers. Optical spectrum of the fiber laser output when the fiber laser is pumped at the indicated powers before (solid, color) and after (dashed, gray) the study in air (b) and (c) and nitrogen (e) and (f).

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