Abstract

We report on multi-wavelength arrays of master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.2 and 9.8 μm. All elements of the high-performance array feature longitudinal (spectral) as well as transverse single-mode emission at peak powers between 2.7 and 10 W at room temperature. The performance of two arrays that are based on different seed-section designs is thoroughly studied and compared. High output power and excellent beam quality render the arrays highly suitable for stand-off spectroscopy applications.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Morthier and P. Vankenwinkelberge, “Handbook of distributed feedback laser diodes” (Artech House, 1997).

2012

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, O. Shatrovoy, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, “Dispersion-compensated wavelength beam combining of quantum-cascade-laser arrays,” Opt. Express19(27), 26725–26732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, S.

M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anders, S.

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brox, O.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bugge, F.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, O. Shatrovoy, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, “Dispersion-compensated wavelength beam combining of quantum-cascade-laser arrays,” Opt. Express19(27), 26725–26732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corzine, S. W.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Costa, J.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dasheva, P.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Degreif, K.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

DiLiberto, M.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fricke, J.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, F.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furstenberg, R.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ginolas, A.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gökden, B.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goyal, A.

Goyal, A. K.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, O. Shatrovoy, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, “Dispersion-compensated wavelength beam combining of quantum-cascade-laser arrays,” Opt. Express19(27), 26725–26732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gresch, T.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Höfler, G. E.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hugger, S.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hugi, A.

For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvozdara, L.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeys, T.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. M.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kendziora, C. A.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, A.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le, H. Q.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, O. Shatrovoy, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, “Dispersion-compensated wavelength beam combining of quantum-cascade-laser arrays,” Opt. Express19(27), 26725–26732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, Y.

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGill, R. A.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, S.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, E.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mujagic, E.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Papantonakis, M.

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parke, R.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Paschke, K.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pfluegl, C.

Pflügl, C.

S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rademacher, S.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rauter, P.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ressel, P.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Schnürer, F.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzer, C.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schweikert, W.

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seetharaman, A.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shatrovoy, O.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slivken, S.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M.

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, O. Shatrovoy, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, C. Pfluegl, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, “Dispersion-compensated wavelength beam combining of quantum-cascade-laser arrays,” Opt. Express19(27), 26725–26732 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Troccoli, M.

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Menzel, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, A. Goyal, C. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifier with 1.5 W output power at 300 K,” Opt. Express19(17), 16229–16235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usami, M.

M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Utaka, K.

M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Wang, C. A.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, A.

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Mujagic, C. Schwarzer, Y. Yao, J. Chen, C. Gmachl, and G. Strasser, “Two-dimensional broadband distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (λ~7.4µm) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(22), 4103–4105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, B. Gökden, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. Turner, and F. Capasso, “Master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. F. Welch, D. Mehuys, R. Parke, R. Waarts, D. Scifres, and W. Streifer, “Coherent operation of monolithically integrated master oscillator amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.26(17), 1327–1329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, O. Brox, F. Bugge, J. Fricke, A. Ginolas, A. Knauer, P. Ressel, and G. Erbert, “10W continuous-wave monolithically integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Electron. Lett.43(3), 160–161 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Utaka, S. Akiba, K. Sakai, and Y. Matsushima, “λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.22(7), 1042–1051 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Usami, S. Akiba, and K. Utaka, “Asymmetric λ/4-shifted InGaAsP/InP DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(6), 815–821 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, T. Gresch, E. Gini, L. Hvozdara, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “High-performance bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade laser for broad-gain applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 36–40 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Höfler, and F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Zhang, A. Seetharaman, P. Johnson, G. Luo, and H. Q. Le, “High-gain low-noise mid-infrared quantum cascade optical preamplifier for receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 13–15 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

A. K. Goyal, M. Spencer, M. Kelly, J. Costa, M. DiLiberto, E. Meyer, and T. Jeys, “Active infrared multispectral imaging of chemicals on surfaces,” Proc. SPIE8018, 80180N, 80180N-11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Kendziora, R. M. Jones, R. Furstenberg, M. Papantonakis, V. Nguyen, and R. A. McGill, “Infrared photothermal imaging for standoff detection applications,” Proc. SPIE8373, 83732H, 83732H-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Degreif, S. Rademacher, P. Dasheva, F. Fuchs, S. Hugger, F. Schnürer, and W. Schweikert, “Stand-off explosive detection on surfaces using multispectral MIR-imaging,” Proc. SPIE7945, 79450P, 79450P-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys.64(11), 1533–1601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

For a review on external cavity QCLs see:A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(8), 083001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, “Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.19(4), S336–S338 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006), Chap. 16.

G. Morthier and P. Vankenwinkelberge, “Handbook of distributed feedback laser diodes” (Artech House, 1997).

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