Abstract

This work demonstrates a photo-switchable bistable optical switch that is based on an azo-chiral doped liquid crystal (ACDLC). The photo-induced isomerization of the azo-chiral dopant can change the chirality of twisted nematic liquid crystal and the gap/pitch ratio of an ACDLC device, enabling switching between 0° and 180° twist states in a homogeneous aligned cell. The bistable 180° and 0° twist states of the azo-chiral doped liquid crystal between crossed polarizers correspond to the ON and OFF states of a light shutter, respectively, and they can be maintained stably for tens of hours. Rapid switching between 180° and 0° twist states can be carried out using 408 and 532nm addressing light. Such a photo-controllable optical switch requires no specific asymmetric alignment layer or precise control of the cell gap/pitch ratio, so it is easily fabricated and has the potential for use in optical systems.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, Wiley-SID Series in Display Technology (John Wiley, 2006).
  2. G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).
  3. I. Dozov, “Bistable liquid crystal technologies,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Paper 34, 946–949 (2003).
  4. D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. L. Xie and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37, 2572–2575 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. P. -Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 093515 (2005).
  8. R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jin, K.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cell for switchable achromatic reflection,” Opt. Express18(16), 16745–16750 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. -Lagarde and I. Dozov, “The binem display: a nematic bistable device switched by surface anchoring breaking,” Proc. SPIE5003, 25–34 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Wang and Q. Li, “Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(15), 1–20 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express18(1), 173–178 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J.-X. Guo and H.-S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nemtaic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 3A), 1210–1216 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and Q. Li, “Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(15), 1–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jin, K.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, J.-C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cell for switchable achromatic reflection,” Opt. Express18(16), 16745–16750 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express18(1), 173–178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. A. P. -Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 093515 (2005).

2003 (1)

P. M. -Lagarde and I. Dozov, “The binem display: a nematic bistable device switched by surface anchoring breaking,” Proc. SPIE5003, 25–34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo and H.-S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nemtaic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 3A), 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. L. Xie and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bricker, R. L.

Bunning, T. J.

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express18(1), 173–178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzell, S. A.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.-T.

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dozov, I.

P. M. -Lagarde and I. Dozov, “The binem display: a nematic bistable device switched by surface anchoring breaking,” Proc. SPIE5003, 25–34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durand, G.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elston, S. J.

L. A. P. -Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 093515 (2005).

Freer, A. S.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Green, L.

Guo, J.-X.

J.-X. Guo and H.-S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nemtaic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 3A), 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, W. R.

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.-L.

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, S.

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, H.-J.

-Jones, L. A. P.

L. A. P. -Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 093515 (2005).

Kim, J.-C.

Kim, K.-H.

Kosa, T.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

Z. L. Xie and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo and H.-S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nemtaic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 3A), 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

-Lagarde, P. M.

P. M. -Lagarde and I. Dozov, “The binem display: a nematic bistable device switched by surface anchoring breaking,” Proc. SPIE5003, 25–34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

Li, Q.

Y. Wang and Q. Li, “Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(15), 1–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express18(1), 173–178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-K.

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathews, M.

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, Z.-G.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

Nobili, M.

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

Qian, T. Z.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhomlinova, L.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taheri, B.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondiglia, V. P.

Urbas, A.

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and Q. Li, “Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(15), 1–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, T. J.

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, L. Green, Q. Li, and T. J. Bunning, “Electrically switchable, photoaddressable cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express18(1), 173–178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, M.

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z. L.

Z. L. Xie and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.-K.

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

Zola, R. S.

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

T. J. White, S. A. Cazzell, A. S. Freer, D.-K. Yang, L. Sukhomlinova, L. Su, T. Kosa, B. Taheri, and T. J. Bunning, “Widely tunable, photoinvertible cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(11), 1389–1392 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and Q. Li, “Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(15), 1–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, Y. Li, J. Ma, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “directing dynamic control of red, green, and blue reflection enabled by a light-driven self-organized helical superstructure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(43), 5069–5073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

I. Dozov, M. Nobili, and G. Durand, “Fast bistable nematic display using monostable surface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(9), 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo, Z.-G. Meng, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, “Three-terminal bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3716–3718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Qian, Z. L. Xie, H. S. Kwok, and P. Sheng, “Dynamic flow and switching bistability in twisted nematic liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(5), 596–598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Barberi and G. Durand, “Electrochirally controlled bistable surface switching in nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58(25), 2907–2909 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. Ma, Y. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

Y. Wang, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible visible-light tuning of self-organized helical superstructures enabled by unprecedented light-driven axially chiral molecular switches,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(7), 3342–3345 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mathews, R. S. Zola, S. Hurley, D.-K. Yang, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, and Q. Li, “Light-driven reversible handedness inversion in self-organized helical superstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(51), 18361–18366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(23), 9573–9576 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

C.-K. Liu, W.-L. Huang, A. Y.-G. Fuh, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary cholesteric/blue-phase liquid crystal textures fabricated using phototunable chirality in azo chiral-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.111(10), 103114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang, J. L. West, L. C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Control of reflectivity and bistability in displays using cholesteric liquid-crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1331–1333 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman and W. R. Heffner, “New bistable liquid-crystal twist cell,” J. Appl. Phys.52(4), 3032–3039 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. A. P. -Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys.97, 093515 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Z. L. Xie and H. S. Kwok, “Reflective bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37, 2572–2575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Guo and H.-S. Kwok, “High performance transmittive bistable twisted nemtaic liquid displays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 3A), 1210–1216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. M. -Lagarde and I. Dozov, “The binem display: a nematic bistable device switched by surface anchoring breaking,” Proc. SPIE5003, 25–34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, Wiley-SID Series in Display Technology (John Wiley, 2006).

G. P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays (Wiley, 2005).

I. Dozov, “Bistable liquid crystal technologies,” SID Symp. Digest Tech. Paper 34, 946–949 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of photo-switchable BTN LCD in the (a) transmissive and (b) reflective modes. (c) Mechanisms of transitions between 180° and 0° twist states of ACDLC, induced by photoisomerization. (d) Chemical structure of azo-chiral dopant ΠQ1-3c-S|.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Polarizing microscopic images of photo-switchable BTN LCD in the transmissive modeand (b) transmission and reflection spectra in the 0° and 180° twist states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations in transmission of proposed device with (a) erasing time and (b) writing time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the transmissive/reflective BTN LCD in OFF and ON states.

Metrics