Abstract

New technique for cancellation of nonlinear cross-talk in polychromatic parametric sampling gate is described and quantified. The method relies on a newly derived look-up table method that achieves equalization and suppresses nonlinear response associated with parametric sampling operation. The new cancellation scheme is implemented in a framework of a specific parametric photonics assisted analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) copy-and-sample-all (CaSA) architecture. A 20 dB improvement in total harmonic distortion is demonstrated experimentally.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems (Wiley 2005).
  2. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express15(5), 1955–1982 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Skoeld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, 100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” in European Conference on Optical Communication - Post-Deadline Papers (2007).
  5. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” in CLEO:2011 - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThI6.
  6. A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 670–680 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. O. J. Wiberg, Z. Tong, L. Liu, J. Ponsetto, V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 40 GHz analog-to-digital conversion using copy-and-sample-all parametric processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3C.2.
  9. D. Asta and F. H. Irones, “Dynamic error compensation of analog-to-digital converters,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal2(2), 161–181 (1989).
  10. J. Tsimbinos and K. V. Lever, “Improved error-table compensation of A/D converters,” IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst.144(6), 343–349 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. Wiberg, B. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Linearization of copy-and-sample photonics analog to digital converter based on a multidimensional look-up table,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2B.6.
  12. C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, R. Nissim, A. Danicic, D. Blessing, B. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Linearized parametric gate for real-time photonic-sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThW5.
  14. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill 2007).
  15. J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).
  16. R. D. Nowak and B. D. Van Veen, “Random and pseudorandom inputs for volterra filter identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.42(8), 2124–2135 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. O. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Express20(26), B419–B427 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Tsimbinos and K. V. Lever, “Improved error-table compensation of A/D converters,” IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst.144(6), 343–349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. D. Nowak and B. D. Van Veen, “Random and pseudorandom inputs for volterra filter identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.42(8), 2124–2135 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Asta and F. H. Irones, “Dynamic error compensation of analog-to-digital converters,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal2(2), 161–181 (1989).

Alic, N.

A. O. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Express20(26), B419–B427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asta, D.

D. Asta and F. H. Irones, “Dynamic error compensation of analog-to-digital converters,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal2(2), 161–181 (1989).

Ataie, V.

Boggio, J. M. C.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bres, C.-S.

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forghieri, F.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

Herman, M.

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

Irones, F. H.

D. Asta and F. H. Irones, “Dynamic error compensation of analog-to-digital converters,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal2(2), 161–181 (1989).

Jackson, J.

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

Kuo, B. P.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lever, K. V.

J. Tsimbinos and K. V. Lever, “Improved error-table compensation of A/D converters,” IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst.144(6), 343–349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Marcuse, D.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B.

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

Myslivets, E.

A. O. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Express20(26), B419–B427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, R. D.

R. D. Nowak and B. D. Van Veen, “Random and pseudorandom inputs for volterra filter identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.42(8), 2124–2135 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Wiberg, L. Liu, Z. Tong, E. Myslivets, V. Ataie, B. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source,” Opt. Express20(26), B419–B427 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raz, G.

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

Stossel, B.

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Tsimbinos, J.

J. Tsimbinos and K. V. Lever, “Improved error-table compensation of A/D converters,” IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst.144(6), 343–349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Van Veen, B. D.

R. D. Nowak and B. D. Van Veen, “Random and pseudorandom inputs for volterra filter identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.42(8), 2124–2135 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiberg, A. O.

Wiberg, A. O. J.

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst. (1)

J. Tsimbinos and K. V. Lever, “Improved error-table compensation of A/D converters,” IEE Proc., Circ. Devices Syst.144(6), 343–349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Goodman, B. Miller, M. Herman, G. Raz, and J. Jackson, “Polyphase nonlinear equalization of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.3(3), 362–373 (2009).

S. Radic, “Parametric signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 670–680 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. M. C. Boggio, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Multicast parametric synchronous sampling of 320-Gb/s return-to-zero signal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(21), 1612–1614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. Marcuse, “Reduction of four-wave mixing cross-talk in WDM systems using unequally spaced channels,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.6(6), 754–756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, B. Stossel, and S. Radic, “Low distortion multicasting of an analog signal by self-seeded parametric mixer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(5), 332–334 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

R. D. Nowak and B. D. Van Veen, “Random and pseudorandom inputs for volterra filter identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.42(8), 2124–2135 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Laboratory Journal (1)

D. Asta and F. H. Irones, “Dynamic error compensation of analog-to-digital converters,” Lincoln Laboratory Journal2(2), 161–181 (1989).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (7)

M. Skoeld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, and P. A. Andrekson, 100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with nyquist-limited bandwidth,” in European Conference on Optical Communication - Post-Deadline Papers (2007).

A. H. Nejadmalayeri, M. E. Grein, A. Khilo, J. Wang, M. Y. Sander, M. Peng, C. M. Sorace, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz,” in CLEO:2011 - Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CThI6.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems (Wiley 2005).

A. O. J. Wiberg, Z. Tong, L. Liu, J. Ponsetto, V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Demonstration of 40 GHz analog-to-digital conversion using copy-and-sample-all parametric processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3C.2.

A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, R. Nissim, A. Danicic, D. Blessing, B. Kuo, and S. Radic, “Linearized parametric gate for real-time photonic-sampled analog-to-digital conversion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OThW5.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill 2007).

V. Ataie, E. Myslivets, A. Wiberg, B. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Linearization of copy-and-sample photonics analog to digital converter based on a multidimensional look-up table,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2B.6.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Parametric copy-and-sample-all (CaSA) photonics ADC architecture. DCT: distortion correction table, τ: optical delay, R: optical sampling rate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nonlinear model for the ADC (cascade of a nonlinear transfer function and an ideal quantizer) and the linearization technique using a one-dimensional distortion correction table.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parametric processor distortion as a MIMO model: Example of digitized nonlinear transfer function of the 2 × 2 MIMO nonlinear system and the two corresponding 2D-distortion correction tables for nonlinear cross-talk cancelation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for parametric copy-and-sample-all (CaSA) photonic ADC with two sub-rate sampling channel and cross-talk mitigation topology: LD: laser diode, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, PM: phase modulator A: amplifier, PC: polarization controller, WDM: wavelength division multiplex filters, SMF: single mode fiber, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, OBPF: optical band pass filter, τ: optical delay lines, ELPF: electrical low pass filter, PD: receiver, ADC: analog to digital converter, EA: electrical amplifier, DCT: distortion correction table, PRMS: pseudo random multilevel sequence (used in calibration period).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured optical spectrum of the sampling pulse train, and (b) corresponding temporal shape of the sampling pulse captured by optical sampling oscilloscope. (c) Measured optical spectrum (0.1 nm RBW) corresponding to parametric multicasting after the HNLF2, and (b) parametric sampling gate after the HNLF3 (the green area around 1578 corresponds to the higher order mixing product induced cross-talk).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) A part of the 4 GBaud/s PR32S-3 calibration sequence and the 250 ps delayed version from the 10-bit resolution digital-to-analog (DAC). (The red and blue markers represent the analog-to-digital (ADC) sampling points at 2 GS/s). (b) The RF spectrum of the training sequence, the 3 dB bandwidth of the calibration sequence lies within the ADC bandwidth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured distortion correction table by a 12 bits electrical analog-to-digital (ADC) for (a) idler1 and (b) idler2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

ADCs output FFT before and after correction for the two idlers and different signal frequencies. (The FFT was calculated for 215 samples).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

FFT of the interleaved outputs of the ADCs before and after correction and different signal frequencies. (The FFT has been performed for 215 samples).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Improvement Summary Using Distortion Correction Tables

Equations (1)

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ou t 1 ¯ [n]=Q( i n 1 [n] )+co r 1 ( ou t 1 [n],ou t 2 [n] ), ou t 2 ¯ [n]=Q( i n 2 [n] )+co r 2 ( ou t 1 [n],ou t 2 [n] ),

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