Abstract

We demonstrate a high-speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with low insertion loss, based on the carrier depletion effect in a lateral PN junction. A 1.9 dB on-chip insertion loss and a VπLπ < 2 V·cm were achieved in an MZM with a 750 μm-long phase shifter by properly choosing the doping concentration and precisely locating the junction. High-speed modulations up to 45–60 Gbit/s have been demonstrated with an additional 1.6 dB optical loss, indicating a total insertion loss of 3.5 dB. A high extinction ratio of 7.5 dB was also realized at the bit rate of 50 Gbit/s with an acceptable insertion loss of 6.5 dB.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (12)

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express20(7), 7081–7087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Martí, and P. Sanchis, “High-contrast 40 Gb/s operation of a 500 μm long silicon carrier-depletion slow wave modulator,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3504–3506 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gbit/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

Asghari, M.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bouville, D.

Brimont, A.

Cassan, E.

Cerrina, F.

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

De Keersgieter, A.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, K.

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fedeli, J.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Harris, N. C.

Hartmann, J. M.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Y.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gbit/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, R.

Kimerling, L. C.

Komorowska, K.

Kopp, C.

Korn, D.

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, B.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lee, P.

Lentine, A. L.

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lim, D. R.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lu, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Min, R.

Myslivets, E.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Osmond, J.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

Pinguet, T.

Polzer, A.

Radic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Shafiiha, R.

Shin, J.

Steffan, A. G.

Streshinsky, M.

Teo, S. H.-G.

Thomson, D.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Tian, Y.

Trotter, D. C.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Watts, M. R.

Xiao, X.

Xiong, K.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gbit/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “25 Gbit/s silicon microring modulator based on misalignment-tolerant interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(3), 2507–2515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Yang, L.

Young, R. W.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

Ziebell, M.

Zimmermann, H.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gbit/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Thomson, F. Gardes, J. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (15)

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, M. Ziebell, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Analytical model for depletion-based silicon modulator simulation,” Opt. Express19(5), 3919–3924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fédéli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

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S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Noguchi, E. Saito, Y. Noguchi, N. Hirayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gbit/s silicon modulator using 250-μm-Long phase shifter based on forward-biased pin diodes,” in Proceedings of 9th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP 2012), pp. 192–194.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the MZM with ground-signal-ground (GSG) electrodes. (b) Schematic structure of the phase shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated on-chip insertion loss at different doping concentrations. (b) Optimum doping concentrations for the lowest insertion loss when the passive waveguide loss αwg varies from 2 to 15 dB/cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated (a) characteristic impedance and (b) attenuation per millimeter of the MZM with the GSG electrode with a 50-Ω termination at −5 V.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DC performances of the MZM with a 750-μm-long phase shifter. (a) Optical spectral curves at different bias voltages. (b) Corresponding efficiency figure of merit VπLπ extracted from the spectral shift. (c) Measured insertion losses of the MMI splitters with the cascade configuration shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured electrical S21 and S11 parameters of the modulator with (a) a 500-μm-long and (b) a 750-μm-long phase shifter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured E-O response of the MZM with the 750-μm-long phase shifter under the bias voltage of 0 V (blue line) and −5 V (red line), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured eye diagram of the MZM with a 750-μm-long phase shifter: (a) below and (b) at the quadrature wavelength, both with a bit rate of 50 Gbit/s. (c) and (d) show the eye-diagrams at 45 Gbit/s and 60 Gbit/s, respectively. In all cases, the driving voltage has a Vpp of ~6.5 V and a DC bias of −5 V.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance Comparison of Some Previously Reported Silicon MZMs with the Speed >40 Gbit/s

Equations (2)

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I L π =2 α sp +( α dp + α wg ) L π
I L π 2 α sp +(A N dop + α wg ) B N dop =2 α sp +(A N dop + α wg / N dop )B

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