Abstract

We characterized the DC transport response of a diode embedded in a THz quantum cascade laser as the laser current was changed. The overall response is described by parallel contributions from the rectification of the laser field due to the non-linearity of the diode I–V and from thermally activated transport. Sudden jumps in the diode response when the laser changes from single mode to multi-mode operation, with no corresponding jumps in output power, suggest that the coupling between the diode and laser field depends on the spatial distribution of internal fields. The results demonstrate conclusively that the internal laser field couples directly to the integrated diode.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Hubers, G. Schwaab, and H. Roser, “Video detection and mixing performance of GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes at 30-THz and comparison with metal-insulator-metal diodes,” J Appl Phys75, 4243–4248 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2008 (3)

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

B.S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, C. Baker, T. Lo, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Imaging with THz quantum cascade lasers using a Schottky diode mixer,” Opt. Express13, 6497–6503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Hudait, “Doping dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor of Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes at low temperatures,” Phys. B: Condensed Matter307, 125–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Hubers, G. Schwaab, and H. Roser, “Video detection and mixing performance of GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes at 30-THz and comparison with metal-insulator-metal diodes,” J Appl Phys75, 4243–4248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Alton, J.

Arrington, C.L.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Barbieri, S.

Baryshev, A.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behnken, B. N.

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, W. L.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. F.

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavaliere, M.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, D. R.

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cich, M. J.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M.J.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Deaver, B. S. J.

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R. J.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, S. Withington, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, and J. Faist, “Heterodyne mixing of two far-infrared quantum cascade lasers by use of a point-contact Schottky diode,” Opt. Lett.29, 1632–1634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filloux, P.

Ford, J.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C. T.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, C.T.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

Gillen, J.R.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
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P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
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M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
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M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
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M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
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Grine, A.D.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
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S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
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J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
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A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
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S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
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A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
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J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
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H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
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I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
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H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
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R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
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B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
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A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
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Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
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Khanna, S. P.

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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King, D.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
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J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
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Klaassen, T. O.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
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J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
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H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
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Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lampin, J.-F. c.

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.-H.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lerttamrab, M.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E.

Linfield, E. H.

Lo, T.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, C. Baker, T. Lo, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Imaging with THz quantum cascade lasers using a Schottky diode mixer,” Opt. Express13, 6497–6503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manquest, C.

Marazita, S. M.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. C.

P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehdi, I.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordquist, C. D.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nordquist, C.D.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oswald, J. E.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S.

Pavlov, S. G.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pease, A. J.

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J.L.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robrish, P. R.

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roser, H.

H. Hubers, G. Schwaab, and H. Roser, “Video detection and mixing performance of GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes at 30-THz and comparison with metal-insulator-metal diodes,” J Appl Phys75, 4243–4248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowen, A.M.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

Scalari, G.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, S. Withington, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, and J. Faist, “Heterodyne mixing of two far-infrared quantum cascade lasers by use of a point-contact Schottky diode,” Opt. Lett.29, 1632–1634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwaab, G.

H. Hubers, G. Schwaab, and H. Roser, “Video detection and mixing performance of GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes at 30-THz and comparison with metal-insulator-metal diodes,” J Appl Phys75, 4243–4248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

Semenov, A. D.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J.-F. c. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express18, 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. P.

P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. Pavlov, A. Semenov, R. Köhler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and E. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver,” Opt. Express13, 5890–5896 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express19, 24810–24815 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M.C.

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weikle, R. M. I.

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B.S.

B.S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Withington, S.

Worrall, C.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. W.

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Hübers, S. G. Pavlov, H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “High-resolution gas phase spectroscopy with a distributed feedback terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 061115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, J. Hovenier, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. Klapwijk, A. Adam, T. Klaassen, B. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 244104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Richter, A. D. Semenov, S. G. Pavlov, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, K. S. Il’in, M. Siegel, and H.-W. Huebers, “Terahertz heterodyne receiver with quantum cascade laser and hot electron bolometer mixer in a pulse tube cooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 141108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, C. Worrall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and C. Sirtori, “Thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers based on different optical waveguide configurations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 021111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, M. Lerttamrab, E. W. Young, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, P. H. Siegel, and R. J. Dengler, “Heterodyne mixing of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a planar Schottky diode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14, 370–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 × 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18, 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

P. H. Siegel, R. P. Smith, M. C. Graidis, and S. C. Martin, “2.5-THz GaAs monolithic membrane-diode mixer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 596–604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Mehdi, S. M. Marazita, D. A. Humphrey, T.-H. Lee, R. J. Dengler, J. E. Oswald, A. J. Pease, S. C. Martin, W. L. Bishop, T. W. Crowe, and P. H. Siegel, “Improved 240-GHz subharmonically pumped planar Schottky diode mixers for space-borne applications,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.46, 2036–2042 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J Appl Phys (1)

H. Hubers, G. Schwaab, and H. Roser, “Video detection and mixing performance of GaAs Schottky-barrier diodes at 30-THz and comparison with metal-insulator-metal diodes,” J Appl Phys75, 4243–4248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (1)

J. L. Hesler, W. R. Hall, T. W. Crowe, R. M. I. Weikle, B. S. J. Deaver, R. F. Bradley, and S.-K. P. M. Theory, and I. T. o.Techniques, “Fixed-tuned submillimeter wavelength waveguide mixers using planar Schottky-barrier diodes,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on45, 653–658 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. C. Wanke, E. W. Young, C. D. Nordquist, M. J. Cich, A. D. Grine, C. T. Fuller, J. L. Reno, and M. Lee, “Monolithically integrated solid-state terahertz transceivers,” Nat. Photonics4, 565–569 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics1, 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature417, 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett (1)

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared micrometer camera,” Opt. Lett33, 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. B: Condensed Matter (1)

M. Hudait, “Doping dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor of Au/n-GaAs Schottky diodes at low temperatures,” Phys. B: Condensed Matter307, 125–137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M.C. Wanke, M. Lee, C.D. Nordquist, M.J. Cich, M. Cavaliere, A.M. Rowen, J.R. Gillen, C.L. Arrington, A.D. Grine, C.T. Fuller, and J.L. Reno, “Integrated chip-scale THz technology,” in Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications III, T. George, M. Saif Islam, and A.K. Dutta, eds., Proc. SPIE8031, 80310E (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Micrograph of the 170 μm wide by 3 mm long transceiver with diode embedded in QCL ridge waveguide. The measurement circuit for diode rectification and IF signals is shown with the dashed grey region indicating a bias tee. (b) Light output - current and voltage - current characteristic (L-I-V) at 20 K (blue), 30 K (green) and 40 K (orange). The diode I–V curves at all three temperatures are shown in the inset, but are virtually identical.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The percent change in DC diode current as a function of QCL bias current at 20 K for diode bias voltages of −0.6 V (orange), −0.4 V (red), +0.4 V (blue) and +0.6 V (teal). (b) The DC diode response (black circles) at 20 K with 450 mA laser current is compared to the second derivative of the diode I–V (blue line), the temperature dependence of the diode I–V (red line), and a fit (green line) to the data as a function of diode voltage bias. The three solid colored curves correspond to the three terms in Eq. (3) as described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The AC rectified diode response at 20 K as a function of QCL current modulation amplitude. The QCL current was modulated around 430 mA (black circles) and 580 mA (red diamonds). (b) The DC and AC diode responses at 20 K are compared at three different diode bias points, 0.60 V (black), 0.65 V (red), and 0.75 V (blue). Solid lines are the AC change in diode current. Diamonds are the calculated derivative of the DC change in diode current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The AC rectified diode response (solid lines) and peak of the IF signal (dashed lines) as a function of QCL current at 20 K (blue), 30 K (green) and 40 K (orange) with diode bias of 0.75 V.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ I D D C ( V D , I Q C L ) = I D ( V D , I Q C L ) I D ( V D , I Q C L 0 ) ,
δ I = I ( V D + Δ V , T + Δ T ) I ( V D , T ) .
δ I D D C = 1 4 2 I D V D 2 δ V T H z 2 + I D T δ P Q C L Θ T .
δ P ( t ) = [ V Q C L + I Q C L ( V Q C L / I Q C L ) ] δ I Q C L cos ( ω mod t ) ,
δ I D A C ( I Q C L ) / δ I Q C L = [ I D ( I Q C L + δ I Q C L 2 ) I D ( I Q C L δ I Q C L 2 ) ] / δ I Q C L

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