Abstract

The ability of 8 picosecond pulse lasers for three dimensional direct-writing in the bulk of transparent dielectrics is assessed through a comparative study with a femtosecond laser delivering 600 fs pulses. The comparison addresses two main applications: the fabrication of birefringent optical elements and two-step machining by laser exposure and post-processing by chemical etching. Formation of self-organized nano-gratings in glass by ps-pulses is demonstrated. Differential etching between ps-laser exposed regions and unexposed silica is observed. Despite attaining values of retardance (>100 nm) and etching rate (2 μm/min) similar to fs pulses, ps pulses are found unsuitable for bulk machining in silica glass primarily due to the build-up of a stress field causing scattering, cracks and non-homogeneous etching. Additionally, we show that the so-called “quill-effect”, that is the dependence of the laser damage from the direction of writing, occurs also for ps-pulse laser machining. Finally, an opposite dependence of the retardance from the intra-pulse distance is observed for fs- and ps-laser direct writing.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

2011

2010

2008

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Cannas, V. Lavinia, and B. Roberto, “Time resolved photoluminescence associated with non-bridging oxygen hole centers in irradiated silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B266(12-13), 2945–2948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5239–5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett.26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Modeling the filamentation of ultra-short pulses in ionizing media,” Phys. Plasmas7(1), 193–209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D. E.

Arai, A. Y.

Audouard, E.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Bado, P.

Barthel, E.

Bellouard, Y.

Benayas, A.

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass Invited,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 783–795 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-4-783 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berge, L.

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Modeling the filamentation of ultra-short pulses in ionizing media,” Phys. Plasmas7(1), 193–209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, E.

Bovatsek, J.

Bricchi, E.

Brisset, F.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cannas, Y. M.

Y. M. Cannas, V. Lavinia, and B. Roberto, “Time resolved photoluminescence associated with non-bridging oxygen hole centers in irradiated silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B266(12-13), 2945–2948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Champion, A.

Chen, K. P.

Colomb, T.

Cook, K.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Modeling the filamentation of ultra-short pulses in ionizing media,” Phys. Plasmas7(1), 193–209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Doring, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

Döring, S.

Dugan, M.

Durfee, C. G.

Eaton, S. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gecevicius, M.

Guizard, S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

Herman, P. R.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertel, I. V.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jia, F.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5239–5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett.26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajihara, K.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass Invited,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 783–795 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-4-783 .
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-10117 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

Lancry, M.

Lavinia, V.

Y. M. Cannas, V. Lavinia, and B. Roberto, “Time resolved photoluminescence associated with non-bridging oxygen hole centers in irradiated silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B266(12-13), 2945–2948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maksimov, I.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5239–5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S. S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Mao, X.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Marcinkevicius, A.

Martin, P.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, B.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5239–5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett.26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

Petite, G.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Poumellec, B.

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quere, F.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajesh, S.

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

Roberto, B.

Y. M. Cannas, V. Lavinia, and B. Roberto, “Time resolved photoluminescence associated with non-bridging oxygen hole centers in irradiated silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B266(12-13), 2945–2948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R. E.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Said, A. A.

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Stoian, R.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tunnermann, A.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

Tünnermann, A.

Vitek, D. N.

Watanabe, M.

Weickman, A.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

Zhang, B. T.

Zhang, H.

Adv. Mater.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, ““Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.104, 503–507 (2011).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, ““Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater.84, 47–61 (2006).

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, ““Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,”Appl. Phys79, 1695–1709 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, “Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(22), 5239–5241 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.101(4), 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B

L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Oxygen-excess-related point defects in glassy/amorphous SiO2 and related materials,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B286, 159–168 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Cannas, V. Lavinia, and B. Roberto, “Time resolved photoluminescence associated with non-bridging oxygen hole centers in irradiated silica,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B266(12-13), 2945–2948 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss Type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express14(11), 4826–4834 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4826 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express14(18), 8360–8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-10117 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express16(24), 19520–19534 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19520 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express18(20), 21490–21497 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-20-21490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express18(24), 24673–24678 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-24-24673 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Plasmas

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Modeling the filamentation of ultra-short pulses in ionizing media,” Phys. Plasmas7(1), 193–209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(4), 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Couairon and P. G. Kazansky, (Personal Communication 2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical image of a set of laser tracks radiating out from a virtual circle (∅ = 100 μm). The angle between lines is 15 deg. The Laser polarization is parallel to the writing direction. λ = 1064 nm, NA = 0.65, τ = 8 ps, Ep = 2 μJ, f = 200 kHz, v = 200 μm/s. (b) and (c) Quantitative birefringence measurements of the laser tracks in (a). (b) Pseudo colors represent the angle of the slow axis of birefringence as indicated by the legend in the top right corner. (c) Pseudo colors represent the strength of the retardance. (d) Retardance vs. position along the dashed line in (c). The retardance measured between two laser tracks is indicative of stress-induced birefringence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field Emission Gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) image of a cleaved laser track in fused silica. The formation of nano-gratings by ps-pulses is shown. Experimental conditions: λ = 1064 nm, NA = 0.65, τ = 8 ps, Ep = 1 μJ, f = 200 kHz, v = 200 μm/s. The laser radiation was shining from the right end of the picture. Polarisation oriented perpendicular to the writing direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of the retardance vs. net laser fluence in tracks processed by (a) 8 ps parallel polarisation and (b) 8 ps transverse polarisation, (c) 600 fs parallel polarisation and (d) 600 fs transverse polarisation. Line colors correspond to: (red) 25 kHz, (blue) 50 kHz, (green), 200 kHz, and (magenta) 400 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the retardance with the laser repetition rate for (a) 600 fs and (b) 8 ps pulses at fixed net fluence. Dotted-dashed lines are guides for the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope bright field images of line structures written in opposite directions using 8 ps pulses. The arrows indicate the direction of writing. The separation between lines is 50 μm. In the top image the damage is uniform along the whole length of the structure. In the bottom image we observe nano-gratings formation (dark lines). Experimental conditions: λ = 1064 nm, NA = 0.65, τ = 8 ps, Ep = 2 μJ, f = 200 kHz, v = 200 μm/s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of the opening of the etched micro-channels produced by 8-ps laser irradiation followed by 2.5% HF etching for 80 min. Ep = 0.8 μJ, NA = 0.5. Each SEM image is 18.6 μm wide. The writing speed ranged from 25 μm/s to 6400 μm/s.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM images of the opening of the etched micro-channels produced by 600-fs laser irradiation followed by 2.5% HF etching for 80 min. Ep = 0.8 μJ, NA = 0.5. Each SEM image is 18.6 μm wide. The writing speed ranged from 25 μm/s to 6400 μm/s

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the length of the micro-channel obtained in silica processed by fs- and ps-laser after 80 min in 2.5% HF bath. Each data point in the plot is the average of the etched length of channels exposed at the same net fluence and the error bars give the corresponding standard deviation. Hence, a small error bar indicates that the etched length has little dependence on laser frequency and scanning speed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of lens focusing and definition of parameters defined in the text

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L c = 0.367 L DF [ ( P in P cr ) 1 2 0.852 ] 2 0.0219 ,
L DF = k 0 w 0 2 2 = π n 0 w 0 2 λ
1 f = 1 L c
P in P cr =0.852+ 0.0219+ 0.367 2 ( L DF f ) 2
NA=nsinσ=n t 1+ t 2
NA=n 1+ ( L DF f ) 2 ( k w 0 ) 2 4 + ( L DF f ) 2 +1
P in P cr =0.852+ 0.0219+ 0.367 2 ( k w 0 4 ) 2 ( n NA ) 2 +1 ( n NA ) 2 1

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