Abstract

A light beam can carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). SAM is commonly evidenced by circular dichroism (CD) experiments i. e. differential absorption of left and right-handed circularly polarized light. Recent experiments, supported by theoretical work, indicate that the corresponding effect with OAM instead of SAM is not observed in chiral matter. Isotropic materials can show CD when subjected to a magnetic field (MCD). We report a set of experiments, under well defined conditions, searching for magnetic orbital dichroism (MOD), differential absorption of light as a function of the sign of its OAM. We experimentally demonstrate that this effect, if any, is smaller than a few 10−4 of MCD for the Nd:YAG 4I9/24 F5/2 transition. This transition is essentially of electric dipole nature. We give an intuitive argument suggesting that the lowest order of light matter interaction leading to MOD is the electric quadrupole term.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Barnett, “Optical angular-momentum flux,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.4, S7–S16 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Characterizing optical chirality,” Phys. Rev. A83, 021803(R) (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Stewart, “Angular momentum of the electromagnetic field: the plane wave paradox resolved,” Eur. J. Phys.26, 635–641 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.3, 161–204 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. M. Coles and D. L. Andrews, “Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation,” Phys. Rev. A85, 063810 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110, 670–678 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A 6 pages PDF file of supplemental information is available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.4227 .
  14. C. T. Schmiegelow and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Light with orbital angular momentum interacting with trapped ions,” Eur. Phys. J. D66, 157–165 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Coles and D. L. Andrews, “Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation,” Phys. Rev. A85, 063810 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Schmiegelow and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Light with orbital angular momentum interacting with trapped ions,” Eur. Phys. J. D66, 157–165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.3, 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Characterizing optical chirality,” Phys. Rev. A83, 021803(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. M. Stewart, “Angular momentum of the electromagnetic field: the plane wave paradox resolved,” Eur. J. Phys.26, 635–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. M. Barnett, “Optical angular-momentum flux,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.4, S7–S16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110, 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110, 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, D. L.

M. M. Coles and D. L. Andrews, “Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation,” Phys. Rev. A85, 063810 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babiker, M.

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Barnett, “Optical angular-momentum flux,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.4, S7–S16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110, 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barron, L. D.

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. R.

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliokh, K. Y.

K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Characterizing optical chirality,” Phys. Rev. A83, 021803(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D. J.

W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, R. P.

R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coles, M. M.

M. M. Coles and D. L. Andrews, “Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation,” Phys. Rev. A85, 063810 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dávila Romero, L. C.

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, W.

W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nori, F.

K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Characterizing optical chirality,” Phys. Rev. A83, 021803(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Persoons, A.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

C. T. Schmiegelow and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Light with orbital angular momentum interacting with trapped ions,” Eur. Phys. J. D66, 157–165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmiegelow, C. T.

C. T. Schmiegelow and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Light with orbital angular momentum interacting with trapped ions,” Eur. Phys. J. D66, 157–165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A. M.

A. M. Stewart, “Angular momentum of the electromagnetic field: the plane wave paradox resolved,” Eur. J. Phys.26, 635–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, A. M.

R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.3, 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Eur. J. Phys.

A. M. Stewart, “Angular momentum of the electromagnetic field: the plane wave paradox resolved,” Eur. J. Phys.26, 635–641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

C. T. Schmiegelow and F. Schmidt-Kaler, “Light with orbital angular momentum interacting with trapped ions,” Eur. Phys. J. D66, 157–165 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

S. M. Barnett, “Optical angular-momentum flux,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.4, S7–S16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

R. P. Cameron, S. M. Barnett, and A. M. Yao, “Optical helicity, optical spin and related quantities in electromagnetic theory,” New J. Phys.14, 053050 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110, 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

K. Y. Bliokh and F. Nori, “Characterizing optical chirality,” Phys. Rev. A83, 021803(R) (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A71, 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Löffler, D. J. Broer, and J. P. Woerdman, “Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A83, 065801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Coles and D. L. Andrews, “Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation,” Phys. Rev. A85, 063810 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Babiker, C. R. Bennett, D. L. Andrews, and L. C. Dávila Romero, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in the interaction of twisted light with molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
[CrossRef]

A 6 pages PDF file of supplemental information is available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.4227 .

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: experimental Setup. LD: laser diode, FC: fiber couplers, PMF: polarization maintaining monomode fiber, SLM: spatial light modulator, L: lens, P: polarizer, QW: quarter-wave plate, S: sample, B: AC longitudinal B–field, PD: photodiode, WG: waveform generator, TIA: transimpedance amplifier, PA: power amplifier, REC: recorder. Right: Absorbance (black) and MCD (red) spectra of Nd:YAG around 809 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: LG0 (red) and LG1 (blue) and simulated noiseless MCD (black) power spectra. LG’s signals are normalized with respect to MCD signal and taken at its optimum wavelength (809.5 nm). Right: Corresponding phase sensitive analysis. The MOD would appear as a difference in the in-phase components (x). Both signals are compatible with 0 and MOD is below 1.8 × 10−4 of MCD at 95% confidence level.

Equations (2)

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M spin = h ¯ σ Φ ,
M orbital = h ¯ Φ ,

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