Abstract

The nonlinear response of amorphous silicon waveguides is reported and compared to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) samples. The real part of the nonlinear coefficient γ is measured by four-wave-mixing and the imaginary part of γ is characterized by measuring the nonlinear loss at different peak powers. The combination of both results yields a two-photon-absorption figure of merit of 4.9, which is more than 7 times higher than for the SOI samples. Time-resolved measurements and simulations confirm the measured nonlinear coefficient γ and show the absence of slow free-carrier effects versus ns free-carrier lifetimes in the SOI samples.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu and W. I. Way, “Fiber Nonlinearity Limitations in Ultra-Dense WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.22, 1483–1498 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Alloatti, L.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrejco, M. J.

Baets, R.

Ballesteros, G. C.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

Bogaerts, W.

B. Kuyken, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36, 552–554 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogatscher, S.

Bonk, R.

Chang, C.

Chi, S.

Clemmen, S.

Cristiani, I.

Delong, K. W.

Diederich, F.

T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dung, J.

Emplit, P.

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Foster, M. A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

Gaeta, A. L.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

Hu, H.

Jacome, L.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Johnson, S. R.

S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

Kung, T.

Kuyken, B.

Lacava, C.

Laemmlin, M.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Lim, P. K.

S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martí, J.

Mas, S.

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Massar, S.

Matres, J.

Meuer, C.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Mizrahi, V.

Morthier, G.

Narayanan, K.

OLeary, S. K.

S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Painter, O. J.

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulton, C.

Preble, S. F.

Premaratne, M.

Pu, M.

Roelkens, G.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Saifi, M. A.

Scimeca, M. L.

Selvaraja, S. K.

Stegeman, G. I.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

Van, D.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Way, W. I.

Wu, M.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Mas, J. Matres, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “Accurate chromatic dispersion characterization of photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J.4, 825–831 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21, 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. OLeary, S. R. Johnson, and P. K. Lim, “The relationship between the distribution of electronic states and the optical absorption spectrum of an amorphous semiconductor: An empirical analysis,” J. Appl. Phys.82, 3334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431, 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides.” Opt. Express18, 8998–9005 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express19, B146–B153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Vallaitis, S. Bogatscher, L. Alloatti, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M. L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries,” Opt. Express17, 17357–17368 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vallaitis, C. Koos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and J. Leuthold, “Slow and fast dynamics of gain and phase in a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express16, 170–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: modeling and applications,” Opt. Express15, 16604–16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Matres, C. Lacava, G. C. Ballesteros, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. M. Fédéli, J. Martí, and C. J. Oton, “Low TPA and free-carrier effects in silicon nanocrystal-based horizontal slot waveguides,” Opt. Express20, 23838–23845 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express15, 5976–5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

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