Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber taper coated with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composite. Using this device, four wave mixing (FWM) based wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s Non-return-to-zero signal is achieved. In addition, we investigate wavelength tuning, two photon absorption and estimate the effective nonlinear coefficient of the CNTs embedded in the tapered fiber to be 1816.8 W−1km−1.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-Gigahertz repetition rate passively modelocked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express19(7), 6155–6163 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Novel Kerr shutter using carbon nanotubes deposited onto a 5-cm D-shaped fiber,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO 2006), no.CMA4, May 2006.
  12. K. K. Chow and S. Yamashita, “Four-wave mixing in a single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited D-shaped fiber and its application in tunable wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express17(18), 15608–15613 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Xu, A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, Generation of four wave mixing in graphene and carbon nanotubes optically deposited onto fiber ferrules,” no.CMAA6, CLEO’2011.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube-poly-methylmethacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  25. S. Uchida, A. Martinez, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube-doped polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3077–3079 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four wave-mixing based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube-poly-methylmethacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, “Single shell carbon nanotubes of one nanometer diameter,” Nature363(6430), 603–605 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K. K.

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hori, Y.

Ichihashi, T.

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, “Single shell carbon nanotubes of one nanometer diameter,” Nature363(6430), 603–605 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, S.

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, “Single shell carbon nanotubes of one nanometer diameter,” Nature363(6430), 603–605 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kuga, T.

Mansuripur, M.

Margulis, V. A.

V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Maruyama, S.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mata, J.

Morimune, K.

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

Nakazawa, M.

Nasu, Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion using a single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited planar lightwave circuit waveguide,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 2070–2072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

Shohda, F.

Sizikova, T. A.

V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

S. Uchida, A. Martinez, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube-doped polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3077–3079 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube-poly-methylmethacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, M.

Tan, P.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, M.

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, “Single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited tapered fiber for four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, J.

Uchida, S.

Wang, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four wave-mixing based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yamashita, S.

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four wave-mixing based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-Gigahertz repetition rate passively modelocked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express19(7), 6155–6163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, “Single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited tapered fiber for four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion using a single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited planar lightwave circuit waveguide,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 2070–2072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Chow and S. Yamashita, “Four-wave mixing in a single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited D-shaped fiber and its application in tunable wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express17(18), 15608–15613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Uchida, A. Martinez, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Carbon nanotube-doped polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(20), 3077–3079 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y.-W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube-poly-methylmethacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, Y.

Adv.Matt. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv.Matt.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, Y. Nasu, H. Yaguchi, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Planar waveguide-type saturable absorber based on carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, “Single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited tapered fiber for four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(6), 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, K. Morimune, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(1), 137–146(2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Xu, A. Martinez, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanically exfoliated graphene for four wave-mixing based wavelength conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1792–1794 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, “Single shell carbon nanotubes of one nanometer diameter,” Nature363(6430), 603–605 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Physica B (1)

V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. Xu, A. Martinez, S. Y. Set, C. S. Goh, and S. Yamashita, “Dissipative solitons in a dispersion mapped, carbon nanotubes-based figure of eight fiber laser,” PDP2–4, Opto Electronics and Communications Conference ’2012 (OECC’ 2012).

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “A noise suppressing saturable absorber at 1550 nm based on carbon nanotube technology,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2003), no.FL2, 2003.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, “Novel Kerr shutter using carbon nanotubes deposited onto a 5-cm D-shaped fiber,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO 2006), no.CMA4, May 2006.

B. Xu, A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, Generation of four wave mixing in graphene and carbon nanotubes optically deposited onto fiber ferrules,” no.CMAA6, CLEO’2011.

A. Martinez, M. Omura, M. Takiguchi, B. Xu, T. Kuga, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Multi-solitons in a dispersion managed fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-coated taper fiber,” JTu5A, Nonlinear Photonics 2012.

G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 3rd ed. (Academic, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrograph of a single-mode silica fiber taper region with a diameter of 1 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup on FWM based wavelength conversion. Inset: diagram showing an embedded tapered fiber used as a nonlinear optical device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Four-wave mixing spectrum obtained after the CNT-polymer tapered fiber sample with input signal modulated at 10 Gb/s and the corresponding close-up views of (b) converted signal and (c) input signal. Inset (left) and (right) show the 10 Gb/s eye-diagrams of the converted and the input signal, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Conversion efficiency against probe wavelength detuning (a) and two photon absorption(b) in CNT polymer tapered fiber sample.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performances in Three Different Tapered Fiber Samples

Equations (2)

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η( L )=(γ p p 2 L)
n 2 = γ CNT c A eff ω 0

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