Abstract

We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine.

© 2013 OSA

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  5. S. D. Marcum and B. N. Ganguly, “Electric-field-induced flame speed modification,” Combust. Flame143(1-2), 27–36 (2005).
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  6. P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Fiber-coupled, 10 kHz simultaneous OH planar laser-induced fluorescence/particle-image velocimetry,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 130–132 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (2)

P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Fiber-coupled, 10 kHz simultaneous OH planar laser-induced fluorescence/particle-image velocimetry,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 130–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt.47(26), 4812–4832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. P. Parry, J. D. Shephard, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Optical fiber array for the delivery of high peak-power laser pulses for fluid flow measurements,” Appl. Opt.46(17), 3432–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Wisman, S. D. Marcum, and B. N. Ganguly, “Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames,” Combust. Flame151(4), 639–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. D. Marcum and B. N. Ganguly, “Electric-field-induced flame speed modification,” Combust. Flame143(1-2), 27–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Adrian, “Twenty years of particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids39(2), 159–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Robinson and I. K. Ilev, “Design and optimization of a flexible high-peak-power laser-to-fiber coupled illumination system used in digital particle image velocimetry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4856–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, “Twenty years of particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids39(2), 159–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. J.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bataviciute, G.

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boechat, A. A. P.

Brambilla, G.

Bruzzese, J.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovskiy, Y.

Charrett, T. O. H.

T. O. H. Charrett, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(3), 032001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chauny, L. A.

Danehy, P. M.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A20–A28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Do, B. T.

Easson, W. J.

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

El-Rabii, H.

Entwistle, J. D.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiechtner, G. J.

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Filippov, V.

Franka, I. S.

Ganguly, B.

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, A. Lynch, and B. Ganguly, “Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current–voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame,” Exp. Fluids51(3), 657–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, B. N.

D. L. Wisman, S. D. Marcum, and B. N. Ganguly, “Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames,” Combust. Flame151(4), 639–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Marcum and B. N. Ganguly, “Electric-field-induced flame speed modification,” Combust. Flame143(1-2), 27–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gebauer, H.

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giatonde, D. V.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gogineni, S. P.

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Fiber-coupled, 10 kHz simultaneous OH planar laser-induced fluorescence/particle-image velocimetry,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 130–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hsu, W. D. Kulatilaka, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for gas-phase, ultraviolet laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.51(18), 4047–4057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greated, C. A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. R.

Hand, D. P.

Haste, M. J.

Holden, M.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

Hurand, S.

Ilev, I. K.

R. A. Robinson and I. K. Ilev, “Design and optimization of a flexible high-peak-power laser-to-fiber coupled illumination system used in digital particle image velocimetry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4856–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, C. B.

James, S. W.

T. O. H. Charrett, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(3), 032001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Jiang, N.

Jones, J. D. C.

J. P. Parry, J. D. Shephard, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Optical fiber array for the delivery of high peak-power laser pulses for fluid flow measurements,” Appl. Opt.46(17), 3432–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Fiber-optic delivery of high-peak-power Q-switched laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement,” Appl. Opt.42(21), 4307–4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. P. Boechat, D. Su, D. R. Hall, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend loss in large core multimode optical fiber beam delivery systems,” Appl. Opt.30(3), 321–327 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, S.

Jung, Y.

Jupe, M.

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerttula, J.

Kling, R.

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kostka, S.

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, A. Lynch, and B. Ganguly, “Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current–voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame,” Exp. Fluids51(3), 657–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, A.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kulatilaka, W. D.

P. S. Hsu, W. D. Kulatilaka, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for gas-phase, ultraviolet laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.51(18), 4047–4057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

Loccisano, F.

Lynch, A.

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, A. Lynch, and B. Ganguly, “Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current–voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame,” Exp. Fluids51(3), 657–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maier, R. R. J.

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marcum, S. D.

D. L. Wisman, S. D. Marcum, and B. N. Ganguly, “Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames,” Combust. Flame151(4), 639–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Marcum and B. N. Ganguly, “Electric-field-induced flame speed modification,” Combust. Flame143(1-2), 27–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCluskey, D. R.

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A20–A28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A20–A28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, R. D.

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Parker, R.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. P.

Patnaik, A. K.

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patton, R.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Ristau, D.

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R. A.

R. A. Robinson and I. K. Ilev, “Design and optimization of a flexible high-peak-power laser-to-fiber coupled illumination system used in digital particle image velocimetry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4856–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolon, J. C.

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

P. S. Hsu, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Fiber-coupled, 10 kHz simultaneous OH planar laser-induced fluorescence/particle-image velocimetry,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 130–132 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hsu, W. D. Kulatilaka, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for gas-phase, ultraviolet laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.51(18), 4047–4057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, A. Lynch, and B. Ganguly, “Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current–voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame,” Exp. Fluids51(3), 657–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Smith, A. V.

Stephens, T. J.

Su, D.

Sutton, J.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tatam, R. P.

T. O. H. Charrett, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(3), 032001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. J.

Towers, D. P.

Ustimchik, V.

Wadham, T.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M.

Wisman, D. L.

D. L. Wisman, S. D. Marcum, and B. N. Ganguly, “Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames,” Combust. Flame151(4), 639–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yalin, A. P.

Yentsch, R.

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Appl. Opt. (8)

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt.50(4), A20–A28 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. P. Boechat, D. Su, D. R. Hall, and J. D. C. Jones, “Bend loss in large core multimode optical fiber beam delivery systems,” Appl. Opt.30(3), 321–327 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Parry, J. D. Shephard, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Optical fiber array for the delivery of high peak-power laser pulses for fluid flow measurements,” Appl. Opt.46(17), 3432–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Stephens, M. J. Haste, D. P. Towers, M. J. Thomson, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. D. C. Jones, and D. P. Hand, “Fiber-optic delivery of high-peak-power Q-switched laser pulses for in-cylinder flow measurement,” Appl. Opt.42(21), 4307–4314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt.47(26), 4812–4832 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Hsu, W. D. Kulatilaka, N. Jiang, J. R. Gord, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for gas-phase, ultraviolet laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.51(18), 4047–4057 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hurand, L. A. Chauny, H. El-Rabii, S. Joshi, and A. P. Yalin, “Mode coupling and output beam quality of 100-400 μm core silica fibers,” Appl. Opt.50(4), 492–499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Loccisano, S. Joshi, I. S. Franka, Z. Yin, W. R. Lempert, and A. P. Yalin, “Fiber-coupled ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6691–6699 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combust. Flame (3)

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, and B. Ganguly, “KHz-rate particle-image velocimetry of induced instability in premixed propane/air flame by millisecond pulsed current–voltage,” Combust. Flame160(2), 276–284 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Marcum and B. N. Ganguly, “Electric-field-induced flame speed modification,” Combust. Flame143(1-2), 27–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Wisman, S. D. Marcum, and B. N. Ganguly, “Electrical control of the thermodiffusive instability in premixed propane-air flames,” Combust. Flame151(4), 639–648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (5)

J. Schmidt, S. Kostka, A. Lynch, and B. Ganguly, “Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and chemiluminescence visualization of millisecond-pulsed current–voltage-induced perturbations of a premixed propane/air flame,” Exp. Fluids51(3), 657–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Adrian, “Twenty years of particle image velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids39(2), 159–169 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Jiang, J. Bruzzese, R. Patton, J. Sutton, R. Yentsch, D. V. Giatonde, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, R. Parker, T. Wadham, M. Holden, and P. M. Danehy, “NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel,” Exp. Fluids53(6), 1637–1646 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Meyer, G. J. Fiechtner, S. P. Gogineni, J. C. Rolon, C. D. Carter, and J. R. Gord, “Simultaneous PLIF/PIV investigation of vortex-induced annular extinction in H2-air counterflow diffusion flames,” Exp. Fluids36(2), 259–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hsu, A. K. Patnaik, J. R. Gord, T. R. Meyer, W. D. Kulatilaka, and S. Roy, “Investigation of optical fibers for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 969–984 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

D. J. Anderson, R. D. Morgan, D. R. McCluskey, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “An optical fiber delivery system for pulsed laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.6(6), 809–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand, J. D. Entwistle, R. R. J. Maier, A. Kuhn, C. A. Greated, and J. D. C. Jones, “Fibre optic beam delivery system for high peak power laser PIV illumination,” Meas. Sci. Technol.10(3), 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. O. H. Charrett, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre laser velocimetry: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(3), 032001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Gebauer, M. Jupe, G. Bataviciute, D. Ristau, and R. Kling, “Measurement of laser power resistance of fibers for PIV systems,” Proc. SPIE7132, 713219, 713219-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. A. Robinson and I. K. Ilev, “Design and optimization of a flexible high-peak-power laser-to-fiber coupled illumination system used in digital particle image velocimetry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4856–4862 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Anderson, J. D. C. Jones, W. J. Easson, and C. A. Greated, “Fiber-optic-bundle delivery system for high peak power laser particle image velocimetry illumination,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(8), 2675–2679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Estevadeordal, T. R. Meyer, S. P. Gogineni, M. D. Polanka, and J. R. Gord, “Development of a fiber-optic PIV system for turbomachinery applications,” in Proceedings of 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA-2005-0038 (2005).

R. M. Wood, Laser-Induced Damage of Optical Materials (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of a large-aperture, tapered silica fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical arrangement for conditioning the laser light and coupling it into the optical fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum output of 532-nm ns laser pulses from MSIFs (550-μm core) and tapered MSIFs with the use of DOE and bulk-optics (conventional) couplers as a function of pulse repetition rate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Long-time transmission for a 6-m-long tapered fiber. Energies of 5.3 mJ (solid line) and 2 mJ (dashed line) represent the initial energy of 1- and 10-kHz pulses, respectively, that are output from the fiber. (b) Fiber transmission of dual laser pulses at different pulse-separation time intervals, Δt. The pulse energy for each 1-kHz laser beam is ~2.7 mJ (total 5.4 mJ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Thickness of light sheets generated by 550-μm-core MSIF, 940-μm-core MSIF, and tapered MSIF as a function of working distance. Shown in the inset is the beam- output profile from the tapered fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sample image showing the PIV correlation obtained with each delivery system in a steady, premixed propane–air flow. Data collected with the fiber-delivered system are shown in (a) and those collected with the directly delivered system are shown in (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Partial, instantaneous velocity-vector maps acquired from an atmospheric-pressure, turbulent propane–air flame on a burner being pulsated by an applied DC voltage of + 2 kV at a frequency of ~15 Hz.

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