Abstract

We develop a simple treatment of a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) based on grating theory. We analytically prove that the condition of MPA requires the existence of two currents, which are nearly out of phase and have almost identical amplitude, akin to a magnetic dipole. Furthermore, we show that non-zero-order Bragg modes within the MPA may consume electromagnetic energy significantly.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Hägglund and S. Peter Apell, “Plasmonic near-field absorbers for ultrathin solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3, 1275–1285 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broadband absorbance,” Opt. Lett.37, 308–310 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Dayal and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Design of highly absorbing metamaterials for infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express20, 17503–17508 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.
  19. H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express20, 7165–7172 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Opticss, 7th ed. (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011).
  24. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  25. Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36, 945–947 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Because our finite-difference time-domain approach cannot handle a permittivity with a nondispersive imaginary part, we adapt a dispersive Lorentz model for the dielectric.
  27. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd Ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

2012 (7)

C. Hägglund and S. Peter Apell, “Plasmonic near-field absorbers for ultrathin solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3, 1275–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broadband absorbance,” Opt. Lett.37, 308–310 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dayal and S. A. Ramakrishna, “Design of highly absorbing metamaterials for infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express20, 17503–17508 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express20, 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36, 945–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdelaziz, R.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Opticss, 7th ed. (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakravadhanula, V. S. K.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express20, 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Chen, Q.

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Dayal, G.

Dienstfrey, A.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dregely, D.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbahri, M.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksen, R. L.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N. X.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faupel, F.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, K.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, J.

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund and S. Peter Apell, “Plasmonic near-field absorbers for ultrathin solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3, 1275–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd Ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

Han, Z.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hedayati, M. K.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holloway, C. L.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Javaherirahim, M.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, Y.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalid, A.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Kuester, E. F.

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, G.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Mai, P.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, J.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozooni, B.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikov, S. M.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Padilla, W. J.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, K.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter Apell, S.

C. Hägglund and S. Peter Apell, “Plasmonic near-field absorbers for ultrathin solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3, 1275–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

Saha, S. C.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchegolkov, D. Yu.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Simakov, E. I.

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strunkus, T.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd Ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

Tao, H.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, R.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavassolizadeh, A.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Tittl, A.

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, W.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Opticss, 7th ed. (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011).

Wu, C.

Xu, J.

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaporojtchenko, V.

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16, 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. K. Hedayati, M. Javaherirahim, B. Mozooni, R. Abdelaziz, A. Tavassolizadeh, V. S. K. Chakravadhanula, V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunkus, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, “Design of a perfect black absorber at visible frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater.23, 5410–5414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

C. Hägglund and S. Peter Apell, “Plasmonic near-field absorbers for ultrathin solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.3, 1275–1285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (1)

C. L. Holloway, A. Dienstfrey, E. F. Kuester, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “A discussion on the interpretation and characterization of metafilms/metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalent of metamaterials,” Metamaterials3, 100–112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, H. Giessen, A. Tittl, and P. Mai, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11, 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, K. Fung, J. Xu, H. Ma, Y. Jin, S. He, and N. X. Fang, “Ultrabroadband light absorption by a sawtooth anisotropic metamaterial slab,” Nano Lett.12, 1443–1447 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (3)

J. Mei, G. Ma, M. Yang, Z. Yang, W. Wen, and P. Sheng, “Dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound,” Nat. Commun.3, 756 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, J. Beermann, Z. Han, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves,” Nat. Commun.3, 969 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater.9, 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Pilon, D. Shrekenhamer, N. I. Landy, K. Fan, X. Zhang, W. J. Padilla, and R. D. Averitt, “Highly flexible wide angle of incidence terahertz metamaterial absorber: Design, fabrication, and characterization,” Phys. Rev. B78, 241103(R) (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82, 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

H.-T. Chen, J. Zhou, J. F. O’Hara, F. Chen, A. K. Azad, and A. J. Taylor, “Antireflection coating using metamaterials and identification of its mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 073901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. Zhou, H.-T. Chen, T. Koschny, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, C. M. Soukoulis, and J. F. O’Hara, “Application of metasurface description for multilayered metamaterials and an alternative theory for metamaterial perfect absorber,” arXiv:1111.0343v1.

See, for example, M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Opticss, 7th ed. (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Because our finite-difference time-domain approach cannot handle a permittivity with a nondispersive imaginary part, we adapt a dispersive Lorentz model for the dielectric.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd Ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection and absorption spectra of the metamaterial perfect absorber under normal incidence. The inset shows the geometry of the metamaterial. The metallic cross consists of two 0.4 × 1.7 metallic bars. The thicknesses of the cross, spacer and ground layer are 0.1, 0.09 and 0.2, respectively. The total thickness h equals 0.39, and the lattice constant d = 2. All dimensions are in micrometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Amplitude and phase of the function g(z), and (b) the function η (z), when λ = 5.93μm. The dielectric layer is highlighted.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( r , ω ) = mn E mn ( r , ω ) = mn π Z 0 e i k mn r d x d y λ κ mn d r J mn , ( r , ω ) e i k mn r ,
E 00 f ( r , ω ) = π Z 0 d x d y λ k z i e i k i r d r J 00 , ( r , ω ) e i k i r .
E 00 f ( r , ω ) = Z 0 e x 2 e i k 0 z h / 2 h / 2 g ( z , ω ) e i k 0 z d z ,
E 00 b ( r , ω ) = Z 0 e x 2 e i k 0 z h / 2 h / 2 g ( z , ω ) e i k 0 z d z .
g ( z , ω ) = 1 d 2 d / 2 d / 2 d / 2 d / 2 J x ( x , y , z , ω ) d x d y
h / 2 h / 2 g ( z ) e i k 0 z d z = 0 ,
h / 2 h / 2 g ( z ) e i k 0 z d z = 2 Z 0 .
h / 2 h / 2 g R ( z ) d z = 1 Z 0 , h / 2 h / 2 g I ( z ) d z = 0 ,
h / 2 h / 2 g R ( z ) z d z = 0 , k 0 h / 2 h / 2 g I ( z ) z d z = 1 Z 0 ,
Z 0 × Re ( G c + G g ) = 1 , Im ( G c + G g ) = 0.
η ( z ) = Im ( ε ) | E ( x , y , z ) | 2 dxdy Im ( ε ) | E ( x , y , z ) | 2 dxdydz

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