Abstract

We demonstrate localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) using silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs). The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with metal NPs is higher by 20.1% for NUV-LEDs with Ag NPs and 57.9% for NUV-LEDs with Pt NPs at 20 mA than that of NUV-LEDs without metal NPs. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra shows that the decay times of NUV-LEDs with Ag and Pt NPs are faster than that of NUV-LEDs without metal NPs. The TR-PL and absorbance spectra of metal NPs indicate that the spontaneous emission rate is increased by resonance coupling between excitons in the multiple quantum wells and LSPs in the metal NPs.

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  2. Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng.44(12), 124003 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng.44(12), 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Mukai, D. Morita, and S. Nakamura, “High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth189/190(158), 778–781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adach, S.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ao, J. P.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

Bai, J.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuke, S.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, L. W.

Jeon, D. W.

Jeong, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jo, D. S.

Ju, J. W.

Kang, J. W.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, S. E.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, U.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. D.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, K.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunzer, M.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langhammer, C.

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leancu, C. C.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I. H.

Lee, K. J.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

L. W. Jang, D. W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D. S. Jo, J. W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, J. K. Yang, J. H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morita, D.

T. Mukai, D. Morita, and S. Nakamura, “High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth189/190(158), 778–781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, D. Morita, and S. Nakamura, “High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth189/190(158), 778–781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, M.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, D. Morita, and S. Nakamura, “High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth189/190(158), 778–781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, K.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, A. H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polyakov, A. Y.

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahoo, T.

Saijou, S.

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, S.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, C.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, T. H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

L. W. Jang, D. W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D. S. Jo, J. W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, J. K. Yang, J. H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng.44(12), 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, C. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, Y.

Y. Uchida and T. Taguchi, “Lighting theory and luminous characteristics of white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Eng.44(12), 124003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueki, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K.

Yoshikawa, H.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoric, I.

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(7), 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, J. D. Kim, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Coupling of InGaN/GaN multiquantum-wells photoluminescence to surface plasmons in platinum nanocluster,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, S. Saijou, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, T. Mukai, and S. Nakamura, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in ultraviolet light-emitting diode composed of In0.02Ga0.98N active layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(4), 558–560 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, Y. H. Lee, J. P. Ao, J. Bai, and S. Sakai, “1 mW AlInGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode with an emission wavelength of 348 nm grown on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(14), 2508–2510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, H. Saito, and N. Kobayashi, “Efficient and high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode grown on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(6), 711–712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adach, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.82(7), 3528 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys.110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

T. Mukai, D. Morita, and S. Nakamura, “High-power UV InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth189/190(158), 778–781 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett.6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Y. Cho, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Lee, S. H. Han, J. W. Kang, S. E. Kang, D. Y. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes using silver nanoparticles embedded in p-GaN,” Nanotechnology21(20), 205201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

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Nature (1)

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M. Kunzer, U. Kaufmann, K. Kohler, C. C. Leancu, S. Liu, and J. Wagner, “Near-UV to violet LEDs - wavelength dependence of efficiency limiting processes,” Phys. Status Solidi4(7), 2822–2825 (2007) (c).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the LSP-enhanced NUV-LEDs with metal NPs in p-GaN layer. SEM images of (b) Ag NPs and (c) Pt NPs on the 20 nm-thick p-GaN spacer layer after a rapid thermal annealing process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra at 10 K and 300 K of the NUV-LEDs; (a) without metal NPs, (b) with Ag NPs, and (c) with Pt NPs. (d) PL enhancement ratio of PL intensity of the NUV-LEDs with Ag and Pt NPs to that of the NUV-LED without metal NPs. The inset shows the absorbance of Ag and Pt NPs as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time resolved-PL spectra of the NUV-LEDs with and without metal NPs at 10 K. (a) without metal NPs, (b) with Ag NPs, and (c) with Pt NPs.Sample figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V curves of the NUV-LEDs with and without metal NPs. (b) Optical output power of the NUV-LEDs with and without metal NPs as a function of injection current.

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