Abstract

We have demonstrated the laser operation of a short-wavelength ultraviolet laser diode with multiple-quantum-wells composed of GaN well layers. The laser action has been achieved in 340-nm-band far from the wavelength corresponding to GaN band gap under the pulsed current mode at room temperature. The device has been realized on the Al0.2Ga0.8N underlying layer. The AlN mole fraction of the underlying layer is 0.1 lower than that of the underlying layer which was used for the previously reported 342 nm laser diode. These results provide a chance to the next step for a shorter-wavelength ultraviolet laser diode.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Kuwabara, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu 434–8601, Japan, Y. Yamashita, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida are preparing a manuscript to be called “Laser operation of nitride laser diodes with GaN well layer in 340 nm band.”

2012 (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, M.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bharathan, J.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bunker, K. L.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chua, C. L.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edmond, J.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, D.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Gaevski, M.

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G. A.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Haberern, K.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honshio, A.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ibbetson, J.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, T.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iida, K.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iyechika, Y.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasugai, H.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Kawanishi, H.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, P.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knollenberg, C.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

Kozaki, T.

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, M.

K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, M.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leung, M.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masui, S.

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, Y.

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, S.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, A.

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, H.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mori, F.

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Motogaito, A.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, K.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, M.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, K.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, K.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Northrup, J. E.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nukui, T.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schowalter, L. J.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schujman, S.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

Senuma, M.

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slater, D.

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, Y.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takanami, S.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teepe, M.

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terao, S.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, H.

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wunderer, T.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yanamoto, T.

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (5)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet c photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 092101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, N. Noguchi, T. Yatabe, and N. Kamata, “227 nm AlGaN light-emitting diode with 0.15 mW output power realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-efficiency continuous-wave operation of blue-green laser diodes based on nonpolar m-plane gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336 nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination in an ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ ≈ 240 nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, M. Teepe, C. Knollenberg, O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, N. M. Johnson, S. Schujman, and L. J. Schowalter, “Ultraviolet semiconductor laser diodes on bulk AlN,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

J. Edmond, A. Abare, M. Bergman, J. Bharathan, K. L. Bunker, D. Emerson, K. Haberern, J. Ibbetson, M. Leung, P. Russel, and D. Slater, “High efficiency GaN-based LEDs and lasers on SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 242–250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuzuki, F. Mori, K. Takeda, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Novel UV devices on high-quality AlGaN using grooved underlying layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2860–2863 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9A), 5782–5784 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(49), L1286– L1288 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365 nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 11A), L1318– L1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Iida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9 nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), L499– L500 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

K. Nagata, K. Takeda, K. Nonaka, T. Ichikawa, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, H. Amano, H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, and H. Kan, “Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi 8(5), 1564–1568 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(7), 1586–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, S. Takanami, S. Terao, A. Miyazaki, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “UV light-emitting diode fabricated on hetero-ELO-grown Al0.22Ga0.78N with low dislocation density,” Phys. Status Solidi A 192(2), 296–300 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Kuwabara, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu 434–8601, Japan, Y. Yamashita, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida are preparing a manuscript to be called “Laser operation of nitride laser diodes with GaN well layer in 340 nm band.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the layer structure of ultraviolet laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Series of lasing spectra of the device operating above threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) spectra operating above threshold.

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